Heart Health*

Almonds Have Heart

Almonds heart-smart benefits are good news for just about everyone; especially since cardiovascular disease holds the spot as the leading cause of death among men and women in the U.S.

  • California Almonds are cholesterol-free, have only 1 gram of saturated fat, and have 13 grams of unsaturated fat per one ounce serving.
  • But there’s more, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Scientific evidence suggests, but does not prove, that eating 1.5 ounces per day of most nuts, such as almonds, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease.” U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend that the majority of your fat intake be unsaturated. One serving of almonds (28 grams, or about 23 almonds) has 13 grams of unsaturated fat and only 1 gram of saturated fat.
  • You can look forward to having a little help in the grocery aisles because the American Heart Association® has certified whole almonds to display the sought-after Heart-Check mark. Now it’s easy for everyone out there to identify almonds as a heart-smart option.i

What's the Plan? The PEP.

In its simplest terms, the Portfolio Eating Plan (PEP) is a dietary approach to helping your clients manage their cholesterol levels. It all started with a team of researchers at the University of Toronto that revealed groundbreaking findings that led to the development of the plan, an option you may want to consider for your clients with high cholesterol. Pretty exciting stuff, and here’s the kicker: the PEP includes—yep, you guessed it—approximately one ounce of crunchy almonds a day.

To learn more about the PEP and see what foods are included in the plan, click here.

 

 


i All certified nuts, including salted varieties, must meet the American Heart Association’s® nutritional requirements which include a limit of 140mg or less of sodium per label serving size. Please note that the Heart-Check Food Certification does not apply to hyperlinks, recipes, or research unless expressly stated. For more information, see the American Heart Association’s® nutrition guidelines at heartcheck.org. American Heart Association® and the Heart-Check Mark are registered trademarks of the American Heart Association®.

Energy

Protein Pros

Protein has a role in essentially every part of the human body. From bones and muscles (the obvious suspects) to cartilage, blood, enzymes, hormones and even skin and nails, the importance of protein is impossible to ignore. As a natural source of protein, almonds make it easy—and crunchy and downright delicious—for your clients to get lasting energy that will power them up and not let them down. 

  • Every ounce of almonds delivers 6 grams of satiating protein that can help your clients power through the day and even keep them feeling fuller between meals—a great way to help watch those waistlines.
  • For those who would rather not crunch into whole nuts, other almond forms, such as almond butter (6g per serving), almond flour (6g per serving) and almond milk (1g per serving), also contain protein.
  • It’s pretty common knowledge that nuts are a good source protein, but not all nuts are created equal. When compared ounce for ounce, almonds are the tree nut highest in this essential nutrient.
  • As a plant-based source of natural protein, almonds can help maintain healthy cholesterol levels by replacing some animal based protein products.
Weight Management

The Skinny on Weight Management

Just one ounce of almonds a day can offer a lot to your clients who are trying to shed a few pounds. With that light, buttery flavor and satisfying crunch, it almost feels like a bonus that almonds effectively stave off hunger and offer that “full” feeling we all want from a snack—and all for just 160 calories (maybe even less). Did we also mention they’re 100% cholesterol free?

  • Almonds provide 4 grams of filling fiber, “good” monounsaturated fats and 6 grams of protein that provide both energy and lasting satisfaction.1
  • Almonds are considered a good fit with many popular weight-loss plans because they provide stellar satiety and fewer calories for more nutrients.
  • A 2012 study, Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that a one-ounce serving of almonds (about 23 nuts) has just 129 calories as opposed to the 160 currently listed on Nutrition Facts panels. That’s a 20% decrease. The study takes into account the digestibility of whole almonds, and further research is needed to better understand the results of the study and how this technique for calculating calories could potentially affect the calorie count of other foods.*

Advise your clients on different ways to fit almonds into their day. Perfect for snacking, on-the-go crunching or as an ingredient in recipes, almonds may just be the key that could tip the scales in their favor.

 

 

1. Good news about good fat: U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend that the majority of your fat intake be unsaturated. One serving of almonds (28g) has 13g of unsaturated fat and only 1g of saturated fat.

*The Study: A study entitled, “Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets” was conducted to determine the energy value of almonds in the human diet and to compare the measured energy value with the value calculated from Atwater factors, the primary method used to determine the energy content of foods. To calculate the measured energy value of almonds, eighteen healthy adults consumed one of three diets for 18 days each. The three treatments were administered to subjects in a crossover design where the diets contained one of three almond doses: 0, 42, or 84 grams per day. During the final nine days of each treatment, volunteers collected all urine and feces, and samples of diets, urine, and feces were analyzed for macronutrient and energy contents. From this, the “measured” (metabolizable) energy content of the almonds was determined.

Results: The energy content of almonds in the human diet was measured at 129 kilocalories per 28-gram (or one-ounce) serving (4.6 ± 0.8 kcal/g). This is significantly less than the calculated energy content of 168–170 kcal per serving (6.0–6.1 kcal/g) for the almonds used in this study as determined by the Atwater factors. When applied to almonds, the Atwater factors resulted in a calculated value that was 20% greater than the measured energy value.

Abstract: This study provides evidence that almonds provide approximately 20% fewer metabolizable calories than originally thought. The Atwater factors, when applied to certain foods, may result in overestimation of their measured metabolizable energy content. Traditional methods overstated the calories from almonds because they do not account for the fat that is not fully absorbed. This is thought to be due, in part, to the fiber content and/or the rigidity of almond cell walls.

Powerful Nutrition

Nutrient Dense

Nutrient Know-How

Ounce for ounce, almonds are one of the most nutrient-dense tree nuts on earth, and that’s something your clients will definitely want to get in on. Just one crunchy ounce a day is a satisfying way to load up on important vitamins and minerals that their bodies need to dominate the day—and when they feel better, you feel better too.

  • Almonds are an excellent source of vitamin E, magnesium and manganese, and a good source of fiber, copper, phosphorous and riboflavin.
  • A one-ounce serving has 13 grams of “good” unsaturated fats, just 1 gram of saturated fat, and is always cholesterol free.1
  • When compared ounce for ounce, almonds are the tree nut highest in protein (6 g), fiber (4 g), calcium (75 mg), vitamin E (7.4 mg), riboflavin (0.3 mg) and niacin (1 mg).
  • Almonds are naturally salt free and low in sugars.

Good news about good fat: U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend that the majority of your fat intake be unsaturated. One serving of almonds (28g) has 13g of unsaturated fat and only 1g of saturated fat.

 

Gut Health

On Track with Digestion

The human gut or gastrointestinal tract (GI) is key to your and your clients’ health, with approximately 80% of immunity starting there.1 It’s also where prebiotics come into play. In vitro research hypothesizes, but does not prove, that almonds may have a prebiotic effect that can support the GI tract in maintaining immunity and overall well-being. And while more research and human clinical studies are needed to prove the prebiotic effect of almonds, it’s still just one more reason to introduce them to your clients. Not to mention just one ounce provides 4 grams of fiber (14% of the recommended Daily Value), which can also contribute significantly to a healthy digestive tract.

Inside the Studies

Study 1: In a study conducted at the Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK, researchers used a model gut to digest almonds and examined the prebiotic effects of two types of almonds compared to a recognized prebiotic. Read more about the study here.3

Study 2: Another study, using the same model gut as Study 1, examined the role cell walls play in the bioaccessibility of nutrients found in almonds, specifically lipid, protein and vitamin E. Natural almonds, blanched almonds, finely ground and defatted finely ground almonds were digested. Find the full research article here.4

1. Rosenbaum, M. Digestion & Immunity. Revolution Health Access at http://www.revolutionhealth.com/conditions/digestive/digestive-health/health-basics/digestion-immunity Oct 13, 2008.

2. Roberfroid MB. “Prebiotics and Probiotics: Are they functional foods?” Am J Clin Nutr 2000 June;71 (suppl):1682S-7S.

3. Mandalari G, Nueno-Palop C, Bisignano G,Wickham M.S.J. “Potential Prebiotic Properties of Almond Seeds.” Appl Environ Microbiol 2008 July;74, 4264-4270. http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/full/74/14/4264?view=long&pmid=18502914.

4. Mandalari G, Faulk RM, Rich GT, Lo Turco V, Picout DR, Lo Curto RB, Bisignano G, Dugo P, Dugo G, Waldron KW, Ellis PR, Wickham MS. “Release of Protein, Lipid, and Vitamin E from Almond Seeds During Digestion.” J Agric Food Chem 2008 May 14;56(9):3409-16. Epub 2008 Apr 17. http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstrac.cgi/jafcau/2008/56/i09/abs/jf073393v.html.

 

Antioxidants

All In with Antioxidants

Almonds’ way-above-average vitamin E content makes them an antioxidant powerhouse ready to help your clients fight the good fight against damaging free radicals. In fact, an ounce of almonds unleashes 35% of the Daily Value for vitamin E, an important nutrient in circulation, hair and skin health, cell function and much more.

  • When our bodies burn oxygen, unstable molecules known as free radicals form. The alpha-tocopherol (AT) vitamin E found in almonds can help neutralize these harmful molecules, which can damage cells, tissues and even DNA.
  • Researchers have linked free radicals to the development of some chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease. Almonds are one of the best food sources of AT vitamin E (see chart below), which the National Academy of Sciences has identified as the only type of vitamin E that makes itself available to cells in the circulatory system.
  • In a study published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, experts found that almond skins contain flavonoids and phenolics similar to certain antioxidant-heavy fruits and vegetables. Findings revealed that a one-ounce serving of almonds contains a similar amount of total polyphenols as one cup of green tea and one cup of steamed broccoli.1

For additional resources on almonds and antioxidants, click here.

1. Milbury PE, Chen C, Dolnkowski G, Blumberg J. “Determination of Flavonoids and Phenolics and their Distribution in Almonds.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006, 54,5027-5023.

 

Fiber

The Facts About Fiber

An almond nutrition discussion wouldn’t be complete without talking fiber. Most frequently praised for its ability to help maintain digestive health and promote regularity, fiber’s benefits actually extend far beyond the bowels. Studies have shown that this multitalented nutrient may be helpful in lowering “bad” LDL cholesterol and blood pressure, among other notable qualities.

  • Fiber has been shown to be helpful in weight maintenance and heart health, and it may even reduce the risk factors for diabetes.
  • One ounce of almonds has 4 grams of filling fiber, which will keep your clients feeling satiated for longer after snacking.
  • Almonds contain both soluble and insoluble fiber.
  • Contrary to popular belief, not all the fiber in almonds is in the skin. In fact, 1 oz. of blanched almonds still contains 3grams of fiber even without the skin.

 

Calcium

The Calcium Question

With osteoporosis and bone health holding steady as highly popular topics, especially among women, many of your clients are probably asking a lot about calcium. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, and it works hand-in-hand with vitamin D to build strong bones and teeth and keep bodily systems running smoothly.

  • Usually associated with dairy and dark, leafy greens, most people don’t think of almonds when they think of calcium and that’s exactly what we aim to change.
  • When compared ounce for ounce, almonds are the tree nut highest in calcium, boasting 75mg per ounce.
  • Calcium is most commonly credited for its talents in bone health, but it’s also key in well-functioning muscles (heart included) and nerves.
  • Calcium is important at every age, so it’s a good thing there’s an almond option to suit every taste. From almond butter and flavored almonds to gluten-free almond flour for baking, almonds don’t leave anyone out of the calcium-getting game.
Gluten Free

A Glance at Gluten Freedom

With foods like almonds packing your clients’ pantries, gluten free doesn’t have to mean flavor free. Or fun free, for that matter. Gluten free almonds are endlessly versatile and always enjoyable, so for those living with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity, they’re a must-have solution for living deliciously gluten free. We even have a comprehensive collection of gluten-free almond recipes to get your clients cooking.

Out and About

Planning ahead is important for proper nutrition, especially when the case of a gluten-free lifestyle. Almonds are known for being non-greasy (aka “the neat nut”), so they are great on the go. Traveling, long days at work and unexpected schedule surprises are no match for these on-hand heroes.

A Form for Every Function

Your clients may be surprised at how many ways they can enjoy these awesomely crunchy nuts on their own or as an ingredient. From natural or flavored whole almonds (a stellar snack) and sliced, diced and slivered almonds (add crunch and substance to salads, side dishes, desserts, veggies and more) to almond crackers (a crispy, crunchy snack or a crushed coating on fish or poultry) and almond butter (spread on snacks or thicken up a smoothie), there’s no stopping these gluten-free almond wonders.

Almond Flour

Gluten-free baking gets a whole lot better when you and your clients add almond flour into the mix. It has a smooth texture and a subtle flavor that goes with sweet or savory recipes, and it’s also one of the most nutrient-rich flours available. Click here for the full nutrition lowdown.

Diabetes

Supporting Diabetics

Nearly 26 million Americans are living with diabetes, which means there’s a pretty good chance that includes several of your patients. For that reason and infinite others, it’s important to understand the positive and proven impact almonds can have in controlling the disease.
 
The nutritional value of almonds – low on the glycemic index and providing a powerful nutrient package including hunger-fighting protein (6 g/oz), filling dietary fiber (4 g/oz), “good” fats[i] (9 g MUFAs/oz) and important vitamins and minerals such as vitamin E (7.3 mg/oz), magnesium (77 mg/oz) and potassium (200 mg/oz), combined with their versatility and many forms, makes them a smart snack for those with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. 
 
What’s more, a growing body research has revealed that adding almonds to a diabetes-friendly diet may actually help improve certain risk factors while providing great taste and substantial nutrition your patients will actually enjoy eating. No kidding. Our Diabetes and Your Diet handout provides tips on meal planning and smart snacking strategies for those with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. 
 

Diabetes and Inflammation

A 2014 randomized, controlled clinical study showed that adding 1.5 ounces of almonds per day, without other dietary changes, helped reduce C-reactive protein levels by nearly 30% in adults with poorly controlled diabetes.**** Study Limitations: The study was limited by small sample size and reliance on self-reported, incomplete dietary records.
 
CITATION BELOW: Sweazea KL, Johnston CS, Ricklefs KD, Petersen CN. Almond supplementation in the absence of dietary advice significantly reduces C-reactive protein in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Functional Foods 2014: 252-259.
 

Pre-Diabetes

A study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition demonstrated that consuming a diet where 20% of total calorie intake came from almonds helped improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with pre-diabetes.* Study Limitations: The single fasting insulin sample and sample size are limitations in this study, as well as possible errors in patient self-reporting of dietary intakes and differences in carbohydrate intakes between the two groups. 4
 

Breakfast and Glucose Levels

According to a study published in the Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, consuming a breakfast containing almonds, which is a low-glycemic-index food, aids in stabilizing blood glucose levels for the better part of the day.** Study Limitations: Although the test meals were matched for available carbohydrate content, they were not matched on energy value or macronutrient composition. Additional research is needed to assess the long-term effects of including almonds in the breakfast meal on blood glucose concentrations.
 

Heart Disease and Diabetes

Results from a study published in Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental suggests that incorporating almonds into the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step II Diet can improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes.***
 

 

 

Limitations of this study include the sample size, length of the study, lack of an oral glucose tolerance test, and lack of hemoglobin A1c readings. The sample size for this study is considered small for a feeding study, so the results may not be extrapolated to apply to a larger population. Though the study showed that almond consumption lowered fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, in order to gauge the effect on insulin actions, an oral glucose tolerance test is needed, and none was administered. Lastly, because hemoglobin A1c is a measure of blood glucose readings over a 2-3 month period, it was not assessed in this study, as the study interventions only lasted for 4 weeks at a time.3

* Almond consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with prediabetes. By:  Wien M, et al. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Jun;29(3):189-97.

**Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial, published in February 2011 in the Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism.

*** Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. By: Sing-Chung Li, Yen-Hua Liu, Jen-Fang Liu, Wen-Hsin Chang, Chaio-Ming Chen, C.-Y. Oliver Chen.  Metabolism Clinical and Experimental. 60 (2011) 474-479

References

Almond Nutrition Research: State of the Science (Updated August 2015)

Allergens

Su, M., M. Venkatachalam, T.M. Gradziel, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2015. Application of mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4C10-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for amandin detection in almond (Prunus dulcis L.) genotypes and hybrids. Food Sci. Tech. 60:535-543. Abstract

Dhakal, S., C. Liu, Y. Zhang, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe, V.M. Balasubramaniam. 2014. Effect of high pressure processing on the immunoreactivity of almond milk. Food Res. Int. 62:215 -222. Abstract

Mandalari, G., N.M. Rigby, C. Bisignano, R.B. Lo Curto, F. Mullholland, M. Su, M. Venkatachalam, J.M. Robotham, L.N. Willison, K. Lapsley, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2014. Effect of food matrix and processing on release of almond protein during simulated digestion. Food Sci. Tech. 59:439-447. Abstract

Su. M., M. Venkatachalam, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2013. A murine monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for almond (Prunus dulcis L.) detection. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:10823-10833. Abstract Available via PubMed

Willison, L.N., Q. Zhang, M. Su, S.S. Teuber, S.K. Sathe, K.H. Roux. 2013. Conformational epitope mapping of Pru du 6, a major allergen from almond nut. Mol. Immunol. 55(3-4):253-263. Abstract Available via PubMed

Kshirsagar, H.H., P. Fajer, G.M. Sharma, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2011. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of almond and cashew nut seed 11S legumins, amandin and anacardein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:386-393. Abstract Available via PubMed

Willison, L.N., P. Tripathi, G. Sharma, S.S. Teuber, S.K. Sathe, K.H. Roux. 2011. Cloning, Expression and Patient IgE Reactivity of Recombinant Pru du 6, an 11S Globulin from Almond. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 156(3):267-281. Abstract Available via PubMed

Tiwari, R.S., M. Venkatachalam, G.M. Sharma, M. Su, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2010. Effect of food matrix on amandin, almond (Prunus dulcis L.) major protein, immunorecognition and recovery. Lwt - Food Science And Technology 43:675-683. Abstract

Su, M., M. Venkatachalam, S.S. Teuber, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2004. Impact of γ-irradiation and thermal processing on the antigenicity of almond, cashew nut and walnut proteins. J. Sci. Food Agric 84:1119-1125. Abstract

Sathe, S.K., W.J. Wolf, K.H. Roux, S.S. Teuber, M. Venkatachalam, K.W.C. Sze-Tao. 2002. Biochemical characterization of amandin, the major storage protein in almond (Prunus dulcis L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(15):4333-4341. Abstract Available via PubMed

Venkatachalam, M., S.S. Teuber, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2002. Effects of roasting, blanching, autoclaving, and microwave heating on antigenicity of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) proteins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(12):3543-3548. Abstract Available via PubMed

Roux, K.H., S.S. Teuber, J.M. Robotham, S.K. Sathe. 2001. Detection and stability of the major almond allergen in foods. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:2131-2136. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sathe, S.K., S.S. Teuber, T.M. Gradziel, K.H. Roux. 2001. Electrophoretic and immunological analyses of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) genotypes and hybrids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49(4):2043-2052. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sze-Tao, K.W.C., S.K. Sathe. 2000. Functional properties and in vitro digestibility of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) protein isolate. Food Chem. 69:153-160. Abstract

Acosta, M.R., K.H. Roux, S.S. Teuber, S.K. Sathe. 1999. Production and characterization of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to almond (Prunus amygdalus L) major storage protein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:4053-4059. Abstract

Wolf, W.J., S.K. Sathe. 1998. Ultracentrifugal and polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic studies of extractability and stability of almond meal proteins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 78:511-521. Abstract

Composition

Xie, L., B.W. Bolling. 2014. Characterization of stilbenes in California almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-MS. Food Chem. 148:300-306. Abstract Available via PubMed

Xie, L., A.V. Roto, B.W. Bolling. 2013. Characterization of ellagitannins, gallotannins, and bound proanthocyanidins from California almond (Prunus dulcis) varieties. J. Agric.Food Chem. 60(49):12151-12156. Abstract Available via PubMed

Yada, S., K. Lapsley, G. Huang. 2011. A review of composition studies of cultivated almonds: Macronutrients and micronutrients. J. Food Comp. Anal. 24:469-480. Abstract Available via PubMed

Bolling, B.W., G. Dolnikowski, J.B. Blumberg, C.-Y.O. Chen. 2010. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of California almonds depend on cultivar and harvest year. Food Chem. 122:819-825. Available via Open Access

Bolling, B.W., J.B. Blumberg, C.-Y.O. Chen. 2010. The influence of roasting, pasteurisation, and storage on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of California almond skins. Food Chem. 123:1040-1047. Abstract

Mandalari, G., A. Tomaino, T. Arcoraci, M. Martorana, V. Lo Turco, F. Cacciola, G.T. Rich, C. Bisignano, A. Saija, P. Dugo, K.L. Cross, M.L. Parker, K.W. Waldron, M.S.J. Wickham. 2010. Characterization of polyphenols, lipids and dietary fibre from almond skins (Amygdalus communis L.). J. Food Comp. Anal. 23:166-174.

Mandalari, G., C. Bisignano, M. D'Arrigo, G. Ginestra, A. Arena, A. Tomaino, M.S.J. Wickham. 2010. Antimicrobial potential of polyphenols extracted from almond skins. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 51(1):1-7. Available via Open Access

Bolling, B.W, G. Dolnikowski, J.B. Blumberg, C.-Y.O. Chen. 2009. Quantification of almond skin polyphenols by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Food Sci. 74(4):C326 -C332. Available via Open Access

Chen, C.-Y., J.B. Blumberg. 2008. In vitro activity of almond skin polyphenols for scavenging free radicals and inducing quinone reductase. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(12):4427-4434. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sathe, S.K., N.P. Seeram, H.H. Kshirsagar, D. Heber, K.A. Lapsley. 2008. Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds. J. Food Sci. 73(9):C607-C614. Available via Open Access

Chen, C.-Y., P.E. Milbury, S.-K. Chung, J. Blumberg. 2007. Effect of almond skin polyphenols and quercetin on human LDL and apolipoprotein. B-100 oxidation and conformation. J. Nutr. Biochem. 18:785-794.  Abstract Available via PubMed

Li, N., X. Jia, C.-Y.O. Chen, J.B. Blumberg, Y. Song, W. Zhang, X. Zhang, G. Ma, J. Chen. 2007. Almond consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in male smokers. J. Nutr. 137:2717-2722. Available via Open Access

Jia, X., N. Li, W. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. Lapsley, G. Huang, J. Blumberg, G. Ma, J. Chen. 2006. A pilot study on the effects of almond consumption on DNA damage and oxidative stress in smokers. Nutr. Cancer 54(2):179-183. Abstract Available via PubMed

Milbury, P.E., C.-Y. Chen, G.G. Dolnikowski, J.B. Blumberg. 2006. Determination of flavonoids and phenolics and their distribution in almonds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:5027-5033. Abstract Available via PubMed

Wijeratne, S.S.K., M.M. Abou-Zaid, F. Shahidi. 2006. Antioxidant polyphenols in almond and its coproducts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:312-318. Abstract Available via PubMed

Wijeratne, S.S.K., R. Amarowicz, F. Shahidi. 2006. Antioxidant activity of almonds and their by-products in food model systems. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83(3):223-230. Abstract

Amarowicz, R., T. Agnieszka, A. Troszynska, F. Shahidi. 2005. Antioxidant activity of almond seed extract and its fractions. J. Food Lipids 12:344-358. Abstract

Chen, C.-Y., P.E. Milbury, K.G. Lapsley, J.B. Blumberg. 2005. Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with Vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. J. Nutr. 135:1366-1373. Available via Open Access

Sang, S., G. Li, S. Tian, K. Lapsley, R.E. Stark, R.K. Pandey, R.T. Rosen, C.-T. Ho. 2003. An unusual diterpene glycoside from the nuts of almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Tetrahedron Lett. 44:1199-1202. Abstract

Frison, S., P. Sporns. 2002. Variation in the flavonol glycoside composition of almond seedcoats as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (23):6818-6822. Abstract Available via PubMed

Frison-Norrie, S., P. Sporns. 2002. Identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in almond seedcoats using MALDI-TOF MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(10):2782-2787. Abstract Available via PubMed

Milbury, P.E., C.-Y. Chen, H.-K. Kwak, J.B. Blumberg. 2002. Almond skins polyphenolics act synergistically with α-tocopherol to increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins to oxidation. Free Radical Res. 36(1):78-80. Abstract Available via Scribd

Sang, S., X. Cheng, H.-Y. Fu, D.-E. Shieh, N. Bai, K.G. Lapsley, R.E. Stark, R.T. Rosen, C.-T. Ho. 2002. New type sesquiterpene lactone from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Tetrahedron Lett. 43:2547-2549. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sang, S., K.G. Lapsley, W.S. Jeong, P.A. Lachance, C.-T. Ho, R.T. Rosen. 2002. Antioxidative phenolic compounds isolated from almond skins (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(8):2459-2463. Abstract

Sang, S., H. Kikuzaki, K. Lapsley, R.T. Rosen, N. Nakatani, C.-T. Ho. 2002. Sphingolipid and other constituents from almond nuts (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(16):4709-4712. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sang, S., K.G. Lapsley, R.T. Rosen, C.-T. Ho. 2002. New prenylated benzoic acid and other constituents from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(3):607-609. Abstract Available via PubMed

Siriwardahana, S.S.K.W., F. Shahidi. 2002. Antiradical activity of extracts of almond and its by-products. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 79(9):903-908. Abstract

Diabetes + Metabolic Syndrome

Beatrice, A., G. Shivaji. 2015. Effect of almond supplementation on the anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters and blood pressure levels of men with Metabolic Syndrome. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 52(2):184-191.

Sweazea, K.L., C.S. Johnston, K.D. Ricklefs, K.N. Petersen. 2014. Almond supplementation in the absence of dietary advice significantly reduces C-reactive protein in subjects with type 2 diabetes J. Funct. Foods 10:252-259.

Liu, J.-F., Y.-H. Liu, C.-M. Chen, W.-H. Chang, C.-Y. O. Chen. 2013. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover feeding trial. Eur. J. Nutr. 52:927-935. Abstract Available via PubMed

Kamil, A., C.-Y. O. Chen. 2012. Health benefits of almonds beyond cholesterol reduction. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60(27):6694-6702. Abstract Available via PubMed

Cohen, A.E., C.S. Johnston. 2011. Almond ingestion at mealtime reduces postprandial glycemia and chronic ingestion reduces hemoglobin A1c in individuals with well controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 60(9):1312-1317. Abstract Available via PubMed

Li, S.-C., Y.-H. Liu, J.-F. Liu, W.-H. Chang, C.-M. Chen, C.-Y.O. Chen. 2011. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metab. Clin. Exp. 60:474-479. Abstract Available via PubMed

Mori, A.M., R.V. Considine, R.D. Mattes. 2011. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial. Nutr. & Metab. 8 (6):1-8. Abstract Available via PubMed

Mori, A., K. Lapsley, R.D. Mattes. 2011. Chapter 19. Almonds (Prunus dulcis): Post-Ingestive Hormonal Response. Nuts & Seeds In Health And Disease Prevention In V. R.

Preedy, R. R. Watson, V. B. Patel (Editors), Nuts & Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention (1st ed.) (pp.167-173).

Wien, M., D. Bleich, M. Raghuwanshi, S. Gould-Forgerite, J. Gomes, L. Monahan-Couch, K. Oda. 2010. Almond consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with prediabetes J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 29(3):189-197. Abstract Available via PubMed

Josse, A.R., C.W.C. Kendall, L.S.A. Augustin, P.R. Ellis, D.J.A. Jenkins. 2007. Almonds and postprandial glycemia – a dose-response study. Metabolism 56:400-404. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A.R. Josse, S. Salvatore, F. Brighenti, L.S.A. Augustin, P.R. Ellis, E. Vidgen, A.V. Rao. 2006. Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia and oxidative damage in healthy individuals. J. Nutr. 136:2987-2992. Available via Open Access

Scott, L.W., A. Balasubramanyam, K.T. Kimball, A.K. Aherns, C.M. Fordis, Jr., C.M. Ballantyne. 2003. Long-term, randomized clinical trial of two diets in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26(8):2481-2482. Abstract Available via PubMed

Lovejoy, J.C., M.M. Most, M. Lefevre, F.L. Greenway, J.C. Rood. 2002. Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76:1000-1006. Available via PubMed

Heart Health

Musa-Veloso K, Paulionis L, Poon T, Lee H-Y. The effects of almond consumption on fasting blood lipid levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Nutritional Science. 2016;5(e34):1-15. Available Via Open Access

Berryman CE, West SG, Fleming JA, Bordi PL, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of Daily Almond Consumption on Cardiometabolic Risk and Abdominal Adiposity in Healthy Adults With Elevated LDL-Cholesterol: A Randomized Controlled Trial Journal of the American Heart Association. 2015;4(1): e000993. Available Via Open Access

Chen, C.-Y., M. Holbrook, M.-A. Duess, M. M. Dohadwala, N.M. Hamburg, B.F. Asztalos, P.E. Milbury, J.B. Blumberg, J.A. Vita. 2015. Effect of almond consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial. Nutrition Journal 14(61):1-11. Available Via Open Access

Ruisinger, J.F., C.A. Gibson, J.M. Backes, B.K. Smith, D.K. Sullivan, P.M. Moriarty, P. Kris-Etherton. 2015. Statins and almonds to lower lipoproteins (the STALL Study) J. Clin. Lipid. 9:58-64. Available Via Open Access

Nishi, S., C.W.C. Kendall, A.-M. Yoon, R.P. Bazinet, B. Bashyam, K.G. Lapsley, D.J.A. Jenkins. 2014. Effect of almond consumption on the serum fatty acid profile: a dose response study. Br. J. Nutr. 112(2):1137-1146. Abstract Available via PubMed

Berryman, C.E., A.G. Preston, W. Karmally, R.J. Deckelbaum, P.M. Kris-Etherton. 2011. Effects of almond consumption on the reduction of LDL-cholesterol: a discussion of potential mechanisms and future research directions. Nutrition Reviews 69(4):171-185. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jaceldo-Siegl, K., J. Sabate, M. Batech, G.E. Fraser. 2011. Influence of body mass index and serum lipids on the cholesterol-lowering effects of almonds in free-living individuals. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 21:S7-S13. Abstract Available via PubMed

Rajaram, S., K.M. Connell, J. Sabate. 2010. Effect of almond-enriched high monounsaturated fat diet on selected markers of inflammation: a randomized, controlled, crossover study Br. J. Nutr. 103:907-912. Abstract Available via PubMed

Berry, S.E.E., E.A. Tydeman, H.B. Lewis, R. Phalora, J. Rosborough, D.R. Picout, P.R. Ellis. 2008. Manipulation of lipid bioaccessibility of almond seeds influences postprandial lipemia in healthy human subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 88:922-929. Available Via Open Access

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, A.R. Josse, T.H. Nguyen, D.A. Faulkner, K.G. Lapsley, J. Blumberg. 2008. Almonds reduce biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in older hyperlipidemic subjects. J. Nutr. 138:908-913. Available via Open Access

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, A.R. Josse, T.H. Nguyen, D.A. Faulkner, K.G. Lapsley, W. Singer. 2008. Effect of almonds on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in nondiabetic hyperlipidemic subjects: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Metab. Clin. Exp. 57:882-887. Abstract Available via PubMed

Gigleux, I., D.J.A. Jenkins, C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulkner, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, P.W. Connelly, B. Lamarche. 2007. Comparison of a dietary portfolio diet of cholesterol-lowering foods and a statin on LDL particle size phenotype in hypercholesterolaemic participants. Br. J. Nutr. 98:1-8. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, D.A. Faulkner, T. Kemp, A. Marchie, T.H. Nguyen, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, E. Vidgen, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer. 2007. Long-term effects of a plant-based dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods on blood pressure. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 62:1-8. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, D.A. Faulkner, T. Nguyen, T. Kemp, A. Marchie, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, E. Vidgen, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, C. Holmes, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, P.W. Connelly, W. Singer. 2006. Assessment of the longer-term effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83:582-591. Available via Open Access

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, T.H. Nguyen, J. Teitel, A. Marchie, M. Chiu, A.Y. Taha, D.A. Faulkner, T. Kemp, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, C. Holmes, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer. 2006. Effect on hematologic risk factors for coronary heart disease of a cholesterol reducing diet. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 61:1-10. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jambazian, P.R, E. Haddad, S. Rajaram, J. Tanzman, J. Sabate. 2005. Almonds in the diet simultaneously improve plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and reduce plasma lipids. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 105:449-454. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D. Faulkner, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, E. Vidgen, E.A. Trautwein, K.G Lapsley, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer, P.W. Connelly. 2005. Direct  comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol lowering foods with a statin in hypercholesterolemic participants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81:380-387. Available via Open Access

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulkner, A.R. Josse, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, T.J. Li, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer, P.W. Connelly. 2005. Direct comparison of dietary portfolio vs statin on C-reactive protein. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 59:851-860. Abstract Available via PubMed

Lamarche, B., S. Desroches, D.J.A. Jenkins, C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulker, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, E.A. Trautwein, T.L. Parker, R.G. Josse, L. A. Leiter, P. W. Connelly. 2004. Combined effects of a dietary portfolio of plant sterols, vegetable protein, viscous fibre and almonds on LDL particle size. Br. J. Nutr. 92:657-663. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulkner, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, E.A. Trautwein, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, P.W. Connelly. 2003. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol - lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 290(4):502-510. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D. Faulkner, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, E.A. Trautwein, T.L. Parker, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, P.W. Connelly. 2003. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism 52(11):1478-1483. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sabaté, J., E. Haddad, J.S. Tanzman, P. Jambazian, S. Rajaram. 2003. Serum lipid response to the graduated enrichment of a Step I diet with almonds: A randomized feeding trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77:1379-1384. Available via Open Access

Spiller, G.A., A. Miller, K. Olivera, J. Reynolds, B. Miller, S.J. Morse, A. Dewell, J.W. Farquhar. 2003. Effects of plant-based diets high in raw or roasted almonds, or roasted almond butter on serum lipoproteins in humans. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 22(3):195-200. Abstract Available via PubMed

Hyson, D.A., B.O. Schneeman, P.A. Davis. 2002. Almonds and almond oil have similar effects on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in healthy men and women. J. Nutr. 132:703-707. Available via Open Access

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, T.L. Parker, P.W. Connelly, W. Qian, J.S. Haight, D. Faulkner, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, G.A. Spiller. 2002. Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Circulation 106:1327-1332. Available via Open Access

Xiao, Y., J.B. Wang, S.F. Yan, X.J. Lian, Y. Tang, and Y. Liu. 2002. The effects of nuts rich in monounsaturated fatty acids on the level of serum lipids in hyperlipidemia patients. China Public Health 18(8):931-932.(as translated from Chinese). Abstract Available via PubMed

Spiller, G.A., D.J.A. Jenkins, O. Bosello, J.E. Gates, L.N. Cragen, B. Bruce. 1998. Nuts and plasma lipids: An almond diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 17(3):285-290. Abstract Available via PubMed

Spiller, G.A., D.J.A. Jenkins, L.N. Cragen, J.E. Gates, O. Bosella, K. Berra, C. Rudd, M. Stevenson, R. Superko. 1992. Effect of a diet high in monounsaturated fat from almonds on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 11(2):126-130. Abstract Available via PubMed
 

Weight Management (Under Construction)

Other

Mandalari, G., M. Vardakou, R. Faulks, C. Bisignano, M. Martorana, A. Smeriglio, D. Trombette. 2016. Food matrix effects of polyphenol bioaccessibility from almond skin during simulated human digestion. Nutrients 568; doi: 10.3390/nu8090568 Available Via Open Access

O'Neil, C.E., T.A. Nicklas, V.L. Fulgoni III. 2016. Almond consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010 Food And Nutirition Sciences 7:504-515. Available Via Open Access

Chen, C.Y. 2014. Health benefits of almond consumption among Chinese consumers. (in Chinese). Chin. J. Prev. Med. 48(3):231-233.

Yi, M., J. Fu, L. Zhou, H. Gao, C. Fan, J. Shao, B. Xu, Q. Wang, J. Li, G. Huang, K. Lapsley, J.B. Blumberg, C.-Y.O Chen. 2014. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 11:18. Available Via Open Access

Bisignano, C., A. Filocamo, E. La Camera, S. Zummo, M.T. Fera, G. Mandalari. 2013. Antibacterial activities of almond skins on cagA-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Bmc Microbiol. 13:103. Abstract Available via PubMed

Evans-Johnson, J.A., Garlick, J.A., Johnson, E.J., Wang, X.-D., Chen, C.-Y.O.. 2013. A pilot study of the photoprotective effect of almond phytochemicals in a 3D human skin equivalent. Jour. Phytochem. And Phytobiol. 126:17-25. Abstract Available via PubMed

Mandalari, G., T. Arcoraci, M. Martorana, C. Bisignano, L. Rizza, F.P. Bonina, D. Trombetta, A. Tomaino. 2013. Antioxidant and photoprotective effects of blanch water, a byproduct of the almond processing industry. Molecules 18:12426-12440. Available via Open Access

Mandalari, G., T. Genovese, C. Bisignano, E. Mazzon, M.S.J. Wickham, R. Di Paola, G. Bisignano, S. Cuzzocrea. 2011. Neuroprotective effects of almond skins in experimental spinal cord injury. Clin. Nutr. 30:221-233. Abstract Available via PubMed

Mandalari, G., C. Bisignano, T. Genovese, E. Mazzon, M.S.J. Wickham, I. Paterniti, S. Cuzzocrea. 2011. Natural almond skin reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease. Int. Immunopharmacol. 11(8):915-924.