True or False
Almonds contain nutrients which contribute to the maintenance of healthy blood cholesterol levels.
True. Almonds contain nutrients that help with healthy blood cholesterol levels.
True
False
Heart Health

Almonds Have Heart

Almonds heart-smart benefits are good news for just about everyone; especially since cardiovascular disease holds the spot as the leading cause of death among men and women in the U.S.

  • California Almonds are cholesterol-free, have only 1 gram of saturated fat, and have 13 grams of unsaturated fat per one ounce serving.
  • But there’s more, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Scientific evidence suggests, but does not prove, that eating 1.5 ounces per day of most nuts, such as almonds, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease.” U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend that the majority of your fat intake be unsaturated. One serving of almonds (28 grams, or about 23 almonds) has 13 grams of unsaturated fat and only 1 gram of saturated fat.
  • You can look forward to having a little help in the grocery aisles because the American Heart Association® has certified whole almonds to display the sought-after Heart-Check mark. Now it’s easy for everyone out there to identify almonds as a heart-smart option.ii


i The Heart and Stroke Foundation's dietitians have reviewed this product and it meets nutrient criteria developed by Health Check based on recommendations in Canada's Food Guide. A fee is paid to help run this voluntary, not-for-profit program. Healthcheck.org

ii All certified nuts, including salted varieties, must meet the American Heart Association’s® nutritional requirements which include a limit of 140mg or less of sodium per label serving size. Please note that the Heart-Check Food Certification does not apply to hyperlinks, recipes, or research unless expressly stated. For more information, see the American Heart Association’s® nutrition guidelines at heartcheckmark.org/guidelines. American Heart Association® and the Heart-Check Mark are registered trademarks of the American Heart Association®.

 

True or False
A handful of almonds has as much protein as an egg.
True, they both have 6 grams.
True
False
Energy

Start Your Engines

As one of the three main macronutrients—fat and carbohydrates round out the trifecta—protein is key in repairing and maintaining your body, helping you power through that meeting marathon at work (or that actual marathon, if that’s more your thing). Almonds also have lots of other revitalizing, satisfying nutrients to keep you going strong.

  • A handful of almonds provide 6 grams of protein, 4 grams of filling fiber and 13 grams of “good” monounsaturated fat to keep you feeling energized and satisfied.
  • If you like to mix things up, other almond forms contain protein in every ounce, too—such as almond butter (6g per ounce serving) and almond flour (6g per ¼ cup serving).
  • It’s pretty common knowledge that nuts are a good source of plant-based protein, but not all nuts are created equal. When compared ounce for ounce, almonds are the tree nut highest in protein
True or False
The fiber in almonds helps you feel full for longer.
True. An ounce of almonds has 4g of fiber, which can help tide you over between meals.
True
False
Weight Management

The Skinny on Fat

As much as we hate to face it, there is no quick fix for weight loss. Nope, no magic pill or 1-minute workout. In the real world, the not-so-secret secret to managing your waistline is an active lifestyle and a calorie-conscious diet of nutritious foods that can help stave off hunger and satisfy your cravings. Almonds happen to be one such food.

  • Almonds provide 4 grams of filling fiber, "good" monounsaturated fats, and 6 grams of protein to keep you feeling energized and satisfied.1
  • Almonds are considered a good fit with many popular weight-loss plans because they provide stellar satiety, plentiful nutrients per calorie, and great, go-with-every-food flavor and crunch.
  • A 2012 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that a one-ounce serving of almonds (about 23 nuts) has just 129 calories as opposed to the previous count of 160. That's a 20% decrease.

Even better, almonds are also super simple to integrate into your diet. Just grab them as a snack or make them part of a meal, and you could see the scales tip in your favor.



1. Good news about good fat: U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend that the majority of your fat intake be unsaturated. One serving of almonds (28g) has 13g of unsaturated fat and only 1g of saturated fat.

True or False
Almonds are an excellent source of the antioxidant vitamin E
They're also an excellent source of magnesium and manganese.
True
False
Powerful Nutrition

No-Nonsense Nutrition

Just one crunchy handful of almonds is a satisfying way to load up on important vitamins and minerals that your body needs to dominate every hour. Allow us to elaborate…

  • Almonds are an excellent source of vitamin E, magnesium and manganese, and a good source of fiber, copper, phosphorous and riboflavin.
  • A one-ounce serving has 13 grams of “good” unsaturated fats, just 1 gram of saturated fat and is always cholesterol free.1
  • When compared ounce for ounce, almonds are the tree nut highest in protein, fiber, calcium, vitamin E, riboflavin and niacin.

Cue the Calcium

Almonds’ nutrition is no one-trick pony. In fact, every crunch carries lots of important vitamins and minerals, including one that most people don’t even think of in nuts: calcium. Usually associated with dairy and dark leafy greens, calcium works with vitamin D to build your bones and keep your body’s systems running at peak performance.

  • When compared ounce for ounce, almonds are the nut highest in calcium, boasting 75mg per ounce.

Check out these nutrition facts for almonds to see how they stack up to other tree nuts.

True or False
Almonds are great for gluten-free cooking and baking.
True, Almond flour and other almond forms make gluten-free living easy and delicious.
True
False
Gluten Free

Getting More Out of Gluten-Free

Almonds are endlessly versatile and always enjoyable, so for those living with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity, they’re the pantry essential you don’t want to live without.

Ten Tips to Eating Gluten-Free with Almonds

  1. Add creamy perfection to your morning  cup o’ joe or your favorite gluten-free cereal with a splash of almond milk.
  2. Take back baked goods by using almond flour as a substitute for regular flour.
  3. Get the gluten-free festivities pumping by serving whole, natural almonds as a crowd-pleasing, gluten-free party snack.
  4. Give your side dish an extra kick of crunch by sprinkling sliced or slivered almonds on top. Flavored varieties can spice up or sweeten the deal.
  5. Use almond flour or crushed almonds instead of breadcrumbs as a coating on fish or poultry. Is it dinnertime yet?
  6. Snack on a handful of whole almonds anywhere anytime. No gluten equals no worries.
  7. Give traditional crackers a run for their money and crunch into almond crackers (homemade or store-bought) as a snack. Your cheese platter won’t mind them one bit either.
  8. Use almond butter to thicken up smoothies or slather it on gluten-free bread at lunch. You can lick your fingers too—just make sure no one’s looking.
  9. Swap crispy croutons with crunchy almonds for a more satisfying (and likely, more sensational) salad.
  10. Give chocolate desserts an added crunch without any added gluten by making almonds part of the mix. Health bonus: almonds and dark chocolate are an antioxidant match made in heaven. 

Gluten-Free, Flavor-Full Recipes

To all the gluten-free folks out there, there’s just one thing you need to know: we’ve got you covered. With the help of Elana Amsterdam, author of The Gluten Free Almond Flour Cookbook, and Chef John Csukor, we developed exclusive recipes, just for you! Not to mention we also have more than 100 additional options in our growing recipe center.

Gluten Freedom with Almond Flour

Start those ovens, everyone (and we do mean everyone) because almond flour has the power to meet all your gluten-free baking needs while also adding top-shelf nutrition and flavor to all your favorite recipes.

Look to stock your stash of this pantry must-have wherever gluten-free products are sold. Note: if you can’t find it, it may be in the refrigerator or freezer section or stores, or you can even make your own by grinding whole almonds in a food processor.

Almond Flour Fast Facts

  • Unlike many GF flours that contain several different inclusions, almond flour has just one ingredient (surprise, it’s almonds) with a slightly sweet, buttery taste ideal for sweet or savory recipes.
  • Far from being gritty or dry, almond flour has a smooth texture that’s picture-perfect for baking. Almond meal, on the other hand, has a slightly coarser texture and is made from whole almonds ground with the skin on. Most baking recipes call for almond flour, so keep tabs on that if you’re substituting. 
  • A one cup serving of almond flour bakes protein (23g), fiber (12g), antioxidants and calcium (235mg) into every creation. Click here for the full nutrition lowdown.
True or False
Almonds make a great addition to a diabetes-friendly diet.
True. An ounce of almonds a day may help improve certain risk factors related to diabetes.
True
False
Diabetes

Taking On Diabetes

More and more research is showing that adding almonds to a diabetes-friendly diet may actually help improve certain risk factors for the disease.

Pre-Diabetes

A study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition demonstrated that consuming an American Diabetes Association-recommended diet where 20% of total calorie intake came from almonds helped improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with prediabetes. Insulin sensitivity is a measure of how well your body processes glucose. The study results also indicated that adding almonds to this diet can also help maintain healthy cholesterol levels. Nutrients in almonds, such as fiber and unsaturated fat have been shown to help maintain healthy cholesterol and blood glucose levels.*

Study Limitations: The single fasting insulin sample and sample size are limitations in this study, as well as possible errors in patient self-reporting of dietary intakes and differences in carbohydrate intakes between the two groups.

Breakfast and Glucose Levels

According to a study published in the Journal of Nutrition & Metabolism, consuming a breakfast containing almonds, which is a low glycemic index food, can aid in stabilizing blood glucose levels for the better part of the day. This is good news if you are looking for a food to keep you going until the clock strikes lunch. In addition, study participants (14 adults with impaired glucose tolerance, average age of 39 years) felt fuller for a longer period of time.**   

Study Limitations: Although the test meals were matched for available carbohydrate content, they were not matched on energy value or macronutrient composition. Additional research is needed to assess the long-term effects of including almonds in the breakfast meal on blood glucose concentrations.

Heart Disease and Diabetes

People who have diabetes often are at higher risk for heart disease. Results from a study published in Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental suggests that incorporating almonds into the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step II Diet can improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. The results also suggested that adding almonds to the NCEP step II diet can help maintain healthy blood cholesterol levels in these patients. ***

Study Limitations: Limitations of this study include the sample size, length of the study, lack of an oral glucose tolerance test, and lack of hemoglobin A1c readings. The sample size for this study is considered small for a feeding study, so the results may not be extrapolated to apply to a larger population. Though the study showed that almond consumption lowered fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, in order to gauge the effect on insulin actions, an oral glucose tolerance test is needed, and none was administered. Lastly, because hemoglobin A1c is a measure of blood glucose readings over a 2-3 month period, it was not assessed in this study, as the study interventions only lasted for 4 weeks at a time.



* Wien M, et al. Almond consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with prediabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 2010;29(3):189-97.

**Mori AM, Considine RV, Mattes RD. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial. Nutr Metab 2011;8(1):6 doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-8-6.

*** Li SC, Liu YH, Liu JF, Chang WH, Chen CM, Chen CY. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 2011;60:474-479

References

Almond Nutrition Research: State of the Science (.PDF)

Allergens
Roux, K.H., S.S. Teuber, J.M. Robotham, S.K. Sathe. 2001. Detection and stability of the major almond allergen in foods. J. Agric. Food Chem 49:2131-2136.
o Blanching, roasting or autoclaving do not change the Almond Major Protein, which is the major allergen protein    in almonds, to the extent that they do not cause allergic reactions.

Antioxidants
Amarowicz, R., T. Agnieszka, A. Troszynska, F. Shahidi. 2005. Antioxidant activity of almond seed extract and its fractions. J. Food Lipids 12:344-358.
o In this study, phenolic compounds were extracted from defatted almond seeds.
o Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions showed antioxidant and antiradical properties as revealed following studies using a b-carotene-linoleate model system, total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, 2,2-diphyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power evaluation.

Bolling, B.W., G. Dolnikowski, J.B. Blumberg, C.-Y.O. Chen. 2010. Polyphenol content and
antioxidant activity of California almonds depend on cultivar and harvest year.
 Food Chem. 122(3):819-825.
o Researchers examined the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of Nonpareil, Carmel, Butte, Sonora, Fritz, Mission, and Monterey almond cultivars harvested over three seasons in California.
o Almonds from 2006 and 2007 crop years had 13% fewer polyphenols than 2005, but FRAP and total phenols were comparable.
o Flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of almonds may be more dependent on cultivar than on seasonal differences.

Bolling, B.W, G. Dolnikowski, J.B. Blumberg, C.-Y.O. Chen. 2009. Quantification of almond skin polyphenols by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Food Sci. 74(4):C326 -332.
o Liquid nitrogen (LN2) or hot water (HW) blanching was used to facilitate removal of the almond skins prior to extraction using assisted solvent extraction (ASE) or steeping with acidified aqueous methanol.
o Recovery of polyphenols was greatest in HW blanched almond extracts with a mean value of 2.1 mg/g skin.

Chen, C.-Y., J.B. Blumberg. 2008. In vitro activity of almond skin polyphenols for scavenging free radicals and inducing quinone reductase. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(12):4427-4434.
o The in vitro effect of ASP extracted with methanol (M) or a gastrointestinal juice mimic (GI) alone or in combination with vitamins C (VC) or E (VE) (1-10 μmol/L) on scavenging free radicals and inducing quinine reductase (QR) were tested to assess their potential mechanisms of action.
o On the basis of their total phenolic content, the measures of total antioxidant activity of ASP-M and –GI were comparable. 
o In vitro, ASP act as antioxidants and induce QR activity, but these actions are dependent upon their dose, method of extraction, and interaction with antioxidant vitamins.

Chen, C.-Y., P.E. Milbury, S.-K. Chung, J. Blumberg. 2007. Effect of almond skin polyphenols and quercetin on human LDL and apolipoprotein B-100 oxidation and conformation. J. Nutr. Biochem.18:785-794.
o ASP and quercetin reduce the oxidative modification of apo B-100 and stablilize LDL conformation in a dose-dependent manner, acting in an additive or synergistic fashion with vitamins C and E.

Chen, C.-Y., K. Lapsley, J. Blumberg. 2006. A nutrition and health perspective on almonds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86:2245-2250.
o Almonds are an excellent source of bioavailable alphoa-tocopherol, and increasing their intake enhances the resistance of LDA against oxidation. 
o The polyphenolic constituents of almonds have been characterized recently and found to possess antioxidant actions.
o Further research is required to achieve a better understanding of the role that the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of almond constituents and the synergy between them play in their associated health outcomes.

Frison-Norrie, S.L., P. Sporns. 2002. Variation in the flavonol glycoside composition of almond seed coats as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometryJ. Agric. Food Chem. 50(23):6818 -6822.
o Seedcoats of 16 almond varieties were screened for flavonol glycosides.
o Each of the 16 seedcoat smaples exhibited a unique composition.
o In all almond varietites, isorhamnetin rutinoside was the most abundant flavonol glycoside, and the total content ranged from 75 – 250 mg/g.

Frison-Norrie, S.L., P. Sporns. 2002. Identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in almond seedcoats using MALDI-TOF MSJ. Agric. Food Chem. 50(10):2785-2787.
o The importance of flavonol glycosides, a subclass of flavonoids, has led to the development of a number of methods for identification and quantification.
o The objectives of the current research were to develop and validate a MALDI-TOF MS methodology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonol glycosides in almond seedcoats.
o The four flavonol glycosides identified in almond seedcoats for the first time were:  isorhamnetin rutinoside, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol rutinoside, and kaempferol glucoside.

Garrido, I., M. Monagas, C. Gomez-Cordoves, B. Bartolome. 2008. Polyphenols and antioxidant properties of almond skins: influence of industrial processing. J. Food Sci. 73(2):C106-C115. (Madrid, Spain)
o The phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of almond skins obtained from different processes (blanching freeze-drying, blanching + drying, and rosting) were studied as a possible source of bioactive polyphenols. 
o A total of 31 phenolic compounds corresponding to flavan-3-ols were determined in the skins from 3 different varieties of almonds.
o The antioxidant activity (ORAC values) was higher for the roasted samples, followed by the samples subjected to blanching + drying and then the blanched smaples.
o Roasting is the most suitable type of industrial processing of almonds to obtain almond skin extracts with the greatest antioxidant capacity.

Harrison, K., L.M. Were. 2007. Effect of gamma irradiation on total phenolic content yield and antioxidant capacity of almond skin extracts. Food Chem. 102:932-937.
o Increased antioxidant activity was observed in TEAC assay and PCL with lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity reagents in ASE irradiated above 4 kGy (trial I) and 12.7 kGy (trial II) compared to 0 kGy.
o Gamma irradiation of almond skins thus increased the yield of total phenolic content as well as enhanced antioxidant activity of extracts.

Hughey, C.A., B. Wilcox, C.S. Mindardi, C.W. Takehara, M. Sundararaman, L.M. Were. 2008. Capillary liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the rapid identification and quantification of almond flavonoids. J. Chromatogr. A. 1192(2):259.
o A rapid negative ion ESI high-performance capillary liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry method was developed to identify and quantify flavonoids (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, flavanones and glycosides).
o Fifteen standards and two varieties of almond skin extract powder (Carmel and Nonpareil) were used to demonstrate the chromatographic separation, reproducibility and accuracy of the method that employed a 150mm x 0.3 mm ChromXP 3C18-EP-120 columb.
o RSDs for retention time and peak area reproducibility (mass spectrometry data) were <0.5% and <5.0%, respectively.
o Peak area reproducibility was greatly improved (from a RSD > 10%) after the implementation of a low-flow metal needle in the ESI source.

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, A.R. Josse, T.H. Nguyen, D.A. Faulkner, K.G. Lapsley, J. Blumberg. 2008. Almonds reduce biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in older hyperlipidemic subjects. J. Nutr. 138(11):908-913.
o People:  27 hyperlipidemic subjects
o Diet:  for one month, control (muffins), half-dose (almonds/muffins), or full-dose almonds (73+/- g/d)
o Results:  Antioxidant effects of almonds were demonstrated as lower concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and urinary isoprostane output on the full dose at 4 wks.  Antioxidant activity may be added to the lipid-lowering property to explain the CHD protective effect of nuts

Jenkins D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A.R. Josse, S. Salvatore, F. Brighenti, L.S.A. Augustin, P.R. Ellis, E. Vidgen, A.V. Rao. 2006. Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia and oxidative damage in healthy individuals. J. Nutr. 136:2987-2992.
o People:  15 healthy subjects
o Diet:  2 bread control meals and 3 test meals:  almonds and bread; parboiled rice; and instant mashed potatoes, balanced in carbohydrate, fat, and protein, using butter and cheese.
o Results:  Glycemic indices for the rice and almond meals were less than for the potato meal, as were the postprandial areas under the insulin concentration time curve.  No postmeal treatment differences were seen in total antioxidant capacity.  However the serum protein thiol concentration increased following the almond meal, indicating less oxidative protein damage, and decreased after the control bread, rice, and potato meals when data from these 3 meals were pooled.  The change in protein thiols was also negatively related to the postprandial  incremental peak glucose and peak insulin responses observations.  Therefore, lowering postprandial glucose excursions may decrease the risk of oxidative damage to the proteins.  Almonds are likely to lower this risk by decreasing the glycemic excursion and by providing antioxidants.

Mandalari, G., A. Tomaino, T. Arcoraci, M. Martorana, V. Lo Turco, F. Cacciola, G.T. Rich, C.
Bisignano, A. Saija, P. Dugo, K.L. Cross, M.L. Parker, K.W. Waldron, M.S.J. Wickham. 2010.
Characterization of polyphenols, lipids and dietary fibre from almond skins (Amygdalus
communis L.).
 J. Food Comp. Anal. 23(2):166-174.
o Researchers compared natural almond skin powder (NS) prepared by a novel freeze-thaing method with blanched almond skin powder (BS).
o Microstructural studies were carried out, and both types of almond skin were analyzed for phenolic compounds, lipids, proteins, and fibre content.  Antioxidant activities were also monitored.
o Almond skins had high fibre content as well as significant amounts of lipid; both of these components may be relevant to fermentation in the large intestine.

Milbury, P.E., C.-Y. Chen, G.G. Dolnikowski, J.B. Blumberg. 2006. Determination of flavonoids and phenolics and their distribution in almondsJ. Agric. Food Chem. 54:5027-5033.
o The analyses were compiled to produce a data set of 18 flavonoids and three phenolic acids. 
o The approach used showed that almonds provide similar amounts of flavonols as red onions, but 9-fold more isorhamnetin than white onions.  The kaempferol and quercetin contents of almonds are comparable to those of broccoli, and the concentration of catechin is between that of brewed black and green tea.

Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, Food and Nutrition Board. 2000. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Richardson, D.P., A. Astrup, A. Cocaul, P. Ellis. 2009. The nutritional and health benefits of
almonds: a healthy food choice.
 Food Sci. Tech. Bull.: Funct. Foods 6(4):1-10.
o Over the last decade, the research on the effects of almonds on reducing blood cholesterol levels and reduction of risk of heart disease has grown significantly.
o Emerging research on almonds also shows promising health benefits linked to bodyweight control and diabetes.
o Almonds naturally contain high levels of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein and dietary fibre as well as a variety of essential nutrients including vitamin E and several trace elements.

Sang, S., K.G. Lapsley, R.T. Rosen, C.-T. Ho. 2002. New prenylated benzoic acid and other
constituents from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). 
J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(3):607-609.
o One new prenylated benzoic acid derivative and three known constituents (catechin, protocatechuic acid and ursolic acid) have been isolated from almond hulls for the first time. 
o Each of these compounds has known antioxidant activity , which might be beneficial since the current major use of almond hulls is as cattle feed.

Sang, S., K.G. Lapsley, W.S. Jeong, P.A. Lachance, C.-T. Ho, R.T. Rosen. 2002. Antioxidative
phenolic compounds isolated from almond skins (Prunus amygdalus Batsch).
 J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(8):2459-2463.
o Nine phenolic compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of almond skins for the first time on the basis of NMR and MS data.  Several showed strong radical scavenging activity.

Sriwardahana, S.S.K.W., F. Shahidi. 2002. Antiradical activity of extracts of almond and its byproducts. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 79(9):903-908.
o Antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts of whole almonds, almond skins and hulls were evaluated using different free radical trapping assays.
o Total antioxidant capacities of skin and hulls were over ten times greater than almonds.

Wijeratne, S.S.K., M.M. Abou-Zaid, F. Shahidi. 2006. Antioxidant polyphenols in almond and its coproducts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:312-318.
o This study evaluated the antioxidant efficacy of defatted almond whole seed, brown skin, and green shell cover extracts by monitoring inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, inhibition shell cover extracts by monitoring inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, inhibition of DNA scission, and metal ion chelation activities.
o All three almond extracts exhibited excellent metal ion chelation efficacies.
o High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis revealed the presence of quercetin, isorhamnetin, quercitrin, kaempferol 3 – O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, and morin as the major flavonoids in all extracts.

Wijeratne, S.S.K., R. Amarowicz, F. Shahidi. 2006. Antioxidant activity of almonds and their byproducts in food model systems. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83(3):223-230.
o This study examined the antioxidant activities of almond whole seed, brown skin, and green shell cover extracts, at 100 and 200 ppm quercetin equivalents using a cooked comminuted port model system, a β-carotene-linoteate model, and a bulk stripped corn oil system.
o HPLC analysis revealed the presence of caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids as the major phenolic acids in all three almond extracts examined.


Bioavailability
Berry, S.E.E., E.A. Tydeman, H.B. Lewis, R. Phalora, J. Rosborough, D.R. Picout, P.R. Ellis. 2008. Manipulation of lipid bioaccessibility of almond seeds influences postprandial lipemia in healthy human subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 88:922-929.
o People: 20 Men
o Diet: 3 meals of 54 grams fat as either whole almond seed macroparticles, almond oil and defatted almond flour or sunflower oil blend as control
o Results: The postprandial lipidemia levels was lower in the whole almond group than both the almond oil and sunflower oil groups, which can be concluded that the bioaccesibility of lipid in almonds depends on the structure and properties of the cell walls.

Cassady, B.A., J.H. Hollis, A.D. Fulford, R.V. Considine, R.D. Mattes. 2009. Mastication of almonds: effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:794-800.
o People: 13 healthy adults (BMI 23.1+/- .4)
o Diet: Ingestion of 55 g almonds chewed either 10, 25 or 40 times
o Results: The longer the almonds were chewed, the less hungry each participants was longer

Mandalari, G., R.M. Faulks, G.T. Rich, V.L. Turcos, D.R. Picout, R.B.L. Curto, G. Bisignano, G. Dugo, K.W. Waldron, P.R. Ellis, M.S.J. Wickham. 2008. Release of protein, lipid, and Vitamin E from almond seeds during digestion. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(9):3409-3416.
o Conclusions: finely ground almonds were the most digestible form with 39% of their lipids, 45% of their Vitamin E and 44% of their protein released during digestion.

 

Diabetes Management
Li, S.-C., Y.-H. Liu, W.-H. Chang, C.-M. Chen, C.-Y. O. Chen, J.-F. Liu. 2010. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2010.04.009
o People: 20 patients with Type 2 Diabetes and mild hyperlipidemia
o Diet: Patients assigned either NCEP Step II diet or almond diet for 4 weeks
o Results: Incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet has beneficial effects on adiposity, glycemic control and lipid profile

Lovejoy, J.C., M.M. Most, M. Lefevre, F.L. Greenway, J.C. Rood. 2002. Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76:1000-1006.
o People: Study 1: 20 healthy volunteers, Study 2: 30 volunteers with Type 2 Diabetes
o Diet: Study 1: 100 g almonds per day for 4 weeks, Study 2: one of four diets: 1) high-fat, high almond, 2) low-fat, high almond, 3) high-fat control and 4) low-fat control
o Results: Study 1: almond consumption did not change insulin sensitivity significantly, increased weight and decreased LDL, Study 2: total cholesterol was lowest in the high-fat, high-almond diet

Rajaram, S., J. Sabate. 2006. Nuts, body weight and insulin resistance. Br. J. Nutr. 96(Supp. 2): S79-S86.
o Conclusions: Adding almond products to diet causes lasting and greater weight loss among obese subjects while improving insulin sensitivity.

Richardson, D.P., A. Astrup, A. Cocaul, P. Ellis. 2009. The nutritional and health benefits of
almonds: a healthy food choice.
 Food Sci. Tech. Bull.: Funct Foods 6(4):1-10.
o Conclusions: Almonds are high in MUFAs, PUFAs, protein, fiber, potassium and many essential nutrients, while they are low in sodium. Almonds have been shown not to significantly contribute to weight gain when almonds are incorporated into a healthy diet

Scott LW, Balasubramanyam A, Kimball KT, Ahrens AK, Fordis CM, Ballantyne CM. 2003. Long-term, Randomonized Clinical Trial of Two Diets in the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 DiabetesDiabetes Care. 26(8): 2481-2.
o People: 35 patients with Type 2 Diabetes of Metabolic Syndrome
o Diet: Either American Heart Association Diet ( 15% kcal from protein, 30% kcal from fat, 15% kcal from MUFA) or other diet (25% protein, 40% total fat, and 22% MUFA) for 42 weeks
o Results:  Diet high in protein and MUFA is advantageous in correcting glucose and lipid metabolism

 

Effects of Chewing
Cassady, B.A., J.H. Hollis, A.D. Fulford, R.V. Considine, R.D. Mattes. 2009. Mastication of almonds: effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:794-800.
o People: 13 healthy adults (BMI: 23.1)
o Diet: Chewed 55 g almonds 10, 25 or 40 times. Blood was collected and appetite was monitored
o Results: The longer one chews almonds (40 times, 25 times, 10 times), the fuller one will be longer.

Ellis, P.R., C.W.C. Kendall, Y. Ren, C. Parker, J.F. Pacy, K.W. Waldron, D.J.A. Jenkins. 2004. Role of cell walls in the bioaccessibility of lipids in almond seeds. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80:604-613.
o Conclusions: Not all lipids in almonds are available for digestion because of the cell wall structure and the limited disruption of the cell wall during mastication.

Frecka, J.M., J.H. Hollis, R.D. Mattes. 2008. Effects of appetite, BMI, food form and flavor on mastication: almonds as a test food. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 62(10):1231-1238.
o People: 12 lean adults (BMI 22.2 +/- 0.2)
o Diet: Eating five almond forms (raw, dry unsalted roasted, natural sliced, roasted salted and honey roasted) under fasted and satiated conditions.
o Results: Bite force is higher in fasted conditions than in satiated conditions, but BMI, flavor nor form had no effect on particle size.  

Ren, Y., K.W. Waldron, J.F. Pacy, P.R. Ellis. 2001. Chemical and histochemical characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides in almond seeds in relation to lipid bioavailabilityRoyal Society Of Chemistry, UK .446-452.
o Conclusions: almond cell walls contain lipids and carbohydrates, with the predominate sugars being glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acid.

Glycemic Index
Chen, C.-Y., K. Lapsley, J. Blumberg. 2006. A nutrition and health perspective on almondsJ. Sci. Food Agric. 86:2245-2250.
o Conclusions: Almonds are a nutrient-dense source of Vitamin E, manganese, copper, phosphorus, fiber, riboflavin, MUFAs and protein. Incremental almond consumption can decrease LDL cholesterol by 1% and habitual ingestion does not lead to weight gain, are low on the glycemic index scale and are high in polyphenols.

Jenkins D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A.R. Josse, S. Salvatore, F. Brighenti, L.S.A. Augustin, P.R. Ellis, E. Vidgen, A.V. Rao. 2006. Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia and oxidative damage in healthy individualsJ. Nutr. 136:2987-2992.
o People: 15 healthy subjects
o Diet: Ingestion of two bread control meals and three test meals of either almonds and bread, parboiled rice or instant mashed potatoes—all balanced in carbohydrates, fat and protein using butter and cheese.
o Results: Almonds decrease protein oxidation via decrease glycemic excursion and providing antioxidants, which suggests that almonds can decrease the risk of CHD

Josse, A.R., C.W.C. Kendall, L.S.A. Augustin, P.R. Ellis, D.J.A. Jenkins. 2007. Almonds and
postprandial glycemia – a dose-response study.
 Metabolism 56(3):400-404.
o People: 9 healthy adults (2 women, 7 men, mean age 27.8, mean BMI 22.9)
o Diet: Ate one of three test meals that included 50 g carbohydrates from white bread eaten alone or with either  30, 60, or 90 g almonds.
o Results: Addition of almonds creates decreased glycemic impact of composite meal with each incremental increase of almonds


Heart Health
Barzi F, Woodward M, Marfisis RM, Tavazzi L, Valagussa F, Marchioli R. Mediterranean Diet and All-Causes Mortality After Myocardial Infarction: Results from the GISSI-Prevention TrialEur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57(4):604-11.
Berry, S.E.E., E.A. Tydeman, H.B. Lewis, R. Phalora, J. Rosborough, D.R. Picout, P.R. Ellis. 2008. Manipulation of lipid bioaccessibility of almond seeds influences postprandial lipemia in healthy human subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 88:922-929.
o People: 20 subjects, ages 18-40 yo
o Diet: 50 g fat ingested from either whole almonds, almond oil or sunflower seed as control
o Results: Vitamin E was higher after the almond oil meal than after the whole almond meal

Chen, C.-Y., P.E. Milbury, S.-K. Chung, J. Blumberg. 2007. Effect of almond skin polyphenols and quercetin on human LDL and apolipoprotein B-100 oxidation and conformation. J. Nutr. Biochem. 18:785-794.
o Conclusions: Almond skim polyphenolics and quercetin reduce the oxidative modification of apo B-100 and stabilize LDL conformation in a dose-dependent manner, which act synergistically with Vitamins C and E.
 
Ellis, P.R., C.W.C. Kendall, Y. Ren, C. Parker, J.F. Pacy, K.W. Waldron, D.J.A. Jenkins. 2004. Role of cell walls in the bioaccessibility of lipids in almond seeds. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80:604-613.
o Conclusions: The cell walls of almonds limit lipid bioaccessibility by hindering the release of lipids for digestion.

Gigleux, I., D.J.A. Jenkins, C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulkner, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, P.W. Connelly, B. Lamarche. 2007. Comparison of a dietary portfolio diet of cholesterol-lowering foods and a statin on LDL particle size phenotype in hypercholesterolaemic participantsBr. J. Nutr. 98:1229-1236.
o People: 34 hypercholesterolemic subjects
o Diet: Ingestion of cholesterol lowering foods versus statins
o Results: the decreased LDL level of the diet group versus the statin group were comparable, which suggests that a diet high in cholesterol lowering foods can be as effective as statins for some people

Hyson, D.A., B.O. Schneeman, P.A. Davis. 2002. Almonds and almond oil have similar effects on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in healthy men and womenJ. Nutr. 132:703-707.
o People: 22 healthy men and women
o Diet: Ingestion of whole almonds or almond oil
o Results: 54% increase in MUFAs, decreased saturated fats and cholesterol intake, and no significant change in total energy or PUFA intake. No difference between benefits imparted from whole almonds versus almond oil.

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, A.R. Josse, T.H. Nguyen, D.A. Faulkner, K.G. Lapsley, J. Blumberg. 2008. Almonds reduce biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in older hyperlipidemic subjects. J. Nutr. 138(11):908-913.
o People: 27 hyperlipidemic men and women
o Diet: intake of supplements that contained either full dose of almonds (73 grams), half dose of almonds and half dose muffin or full dose muffin for one month
o Results: Weight loss, decreased cholesterol levels and increased alpha-tocopherol levels were all associated with almond-containing meals

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, A.R. Jossea, T.H. Nguyen, D.A. Faulkner, K.G. Lapsley, W. Singer. 2008. Effect of almonds on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in nondiabetic hyperlipidemic subjects: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Metab. Clin. Exp. 27(6):882-887.
o People: 27 hyperlipidemic men and women
o Diet: For one month, consume 423 kcal worth of either full dose whole almonds, full dose whole wheat muffin or combination of half dose almonds and half dose muffin.
o Results: Almonds associated with decreased postprandial insulin output, which can help decrease CHD risk.

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, T.H. Nguyen, J. Teitel, A. Marchie, M. Chius, A.Y. Taha, D.A. Faulkner, T. Kemp, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, C. Holmes, R. G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer. 2007. Effect on hematologic risk factors for coronary heart disease of a cholesterol reducing diet. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 61:483-492.
o People: 66 hyperlipidemic subjects
o Diet: Diet of cholesterol-lowering foods for 1 year
o Results: Reductions in hematological indices in after 1 year of eating a diet of cholesterol-lowering foods
 
Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, T.L. Parker, P.W. Connelly, W. Qian, J.S. Haight, D. Faulkner, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, G.A. Spiller. 2002. Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Circulation 106:1327-1332.
o People: 15 men and 12 women with high cholesterol level
o Diet: participants consumed either a full dose (74 grams) or a half dose (37 grams) and a low-saturated fat, whole-wheat muffin as a daily snack
o Results: LDL was reduced 4.4 % with a daily half dose and 9.4% with a daily full dose of almonds

Joice, C.K. Lapsley, J.B. Blumberg. 2008. Almonds as a value added ingredient: Benefits of anutrient rich, high fibre nut. Agro Food Ind. Hi Tec. 19(3):16-18.
o Almonds are high in fiber,  phytochemicals, MUFAs and Vitamin E, which are associated with reduced risk of obesity, cancer, heart disease and diabetes through promoting satiety, reduced cholesterol levels, blood sugar control.

Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B, Appel LJ, Daniels SR, Deckelbaum RJ, Erdman JW, Kris-Etherton P, Goldberg IJ, Kotchen TA, Lichtenstein AH, Mithc WE, Mullis R, Robinson K, Wylie-Rosett J, St. Jeor S, Suttie J, Tribble DL, Bazzarre TL. 2000. AHA Dietary Guidelines, Revision 2000: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 102:2284-99.

Kurlandsky, S.B., K.S. Stote. 2006. Cardioprotective effects of chocolate and almond consumption in healthy women. Nutr. Res. 26:509-516.
o People: 49 healthy women
o Diet: consume chocolate (41 g/d), almonds (60 g/d), chocolate and almonds or control with neither chocolate nor almonds for 6 weeks
o Results: Dietary modifications involving chocolate and/or almonds reduced triacylglycerol levels and chocolate consumption reduced circulating ICAM levels. 

Li, S.-C., Y.-H. Liu, W.-H. Chang, C.-M. Chen, C.-Y. O. Chen, J.-F. Liu. 2010. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2010.04.009
o People: 20 patients with Type 2 Diabetes and mild hyperlipidemia
o Diet: Consume 60 g almonds daily for 12 weeks
o Results: The almond group lowered their cholesterol levels by 6.6%, LDL levels by 11.6%, fasting insulin by 4.1% and fasting glucose by 0.8%

Phung, O.J., Makanji, S.S., White, C.M., Coleman, C.I.. 2009. Almonds have a neutral effect on serum lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 109(5):865-873.
o Conclusions: Almond consumption may decrease total cholesterol, but does not significantly effect LDL or HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or HDL:LDL ratio.

Pitsavos C, Panagiotakos DB, Chrysohoou C, Skoumas J, Papaioannou I, Stefanadis C, Toutouzas PK. 2002. The Effect of Mediterranean Diet on the Risk of the Development of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Hypercholesterolemia People: A Case Control Study (CARDIO2000). Coron Artery Dis. 13(5):295-300.
o People: 848 people with CHD and 1078 CHD-free patients
o Diet: Adoption of the Mediterranean Diet and statin use for one year
o Results: Adoption of the Mediterranean diet reinforces benefits of statin treatment on lipid levels and development of ACS.

Rajaram, S., K.M. Connell, J. Sabate. 2009. Effect of almond-enriched high monounsaturated fat diet on selected markers of inflammation: a randomized, controlled, crossover study Br. J. Nutr. 103(6):907-912.
o People: 11 men, 14 women, ages 22-53 yo
o Diet: After 2-week run-in phase with diet of 34% fat, participants were assigned to diet of a heart-healthy diet with no nuts (>30% fat), a low almond diet (10% isoenergetic replacement) or high almond diet (20% isoenergetic replacement) for 4 weeks.
o Results: E-selectin decreased as almond consumption increased, C-reactive protein was lower in both almond groups,

Richardson, D.P., A. Astrup, A. Cocaul, P. Ellis. 2009. The nutritional and health benefits of almonds: a healthy food choice. Food Sci. Tech. Bull.: Funct. Foods 6(4):1-10.
o Conclusions: Almonds are high in MUFAs, PUFAs, protein, fiber, potassium and many essential nutrients, while they are low in sodium. Almonds have been shown not to significantly contribute to weight gain when almonds are incorporated into a healthy diet.

Sabaté, J., E. Haddad, J.S. Tanzman, P. Jambazian, S. Rajaram. 2003. Serum lipid response to the graduated enrichment of a Step I diet with almonds: A randomized feeding trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77:1379-1384.
o People: 25 healthy adults
o Diet: Consumption of Step I diet (0% kcal from almonds), low-almond diet (10% kcal from almonds) or high-almond diet (20% kcal from almonds)
o Results: Inclusion of an isoenergetic amount of almonds (68 g) to a Step I diet (2000 kcal) markedly improved lipidprofiles of participants and appears to be a dose-response.

Spiller, G.A., A. Miller, K. Olivera, J. Reynolds, B. Miller, S.J. Morse, A. Dewell, J.W. Farquhar. 2003. Effects of plant-based diets high in raw or roasted almonds, or roasted almond butter on serum lipoproteins in humansJ. Am. Coll. Nutr. 22(3):195-200.
o People: 12 hypercholesterolemic men and 26 hypercholesterolemic women
o Diet: Consume 100 g of one of three forms of almonds (roasted salted whole, roasted almond butter, raw whole) for four weeks.
o Results: LDL cholesterol was lowered significantly by all three forms of almonds, Total Cholesterol was lowered significantly by whole raw and roasted almonds, HDL was increased slightly by roasted almond butter, blood pressure was unchanged with any form.

Spiller, G.A., D.J.A. Jenkins, O. Bosello, J.E. Gates, L.N. Cragen, B. Bruce. 1998. Nuts and plasma lipids: An almond diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 17(3):285-290.
o People: 45 hyperlipidemic men and women
o Diet: 4-week diet either of olive oil-based, almond-based or dairy-based
o Results: The almond based diet significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL levels, while maintaining HDL levels. The olive oil-based diet increased HDL and total cholesterol levels.

Spiller GA, Jenkins DJ, Cragen LN, Gates JE, Bosello O, Berra K, Rudd C, Stevenson M, Superko R. 1992. Effect of a Diet High in Monounsaturated Fat from Almonds on Plasma Cholesterol and Lipoproteins. J Am Coll Nutr. 11(2):126-30.
o People: 13 men and 13 women
o Diet: 100 grams of almonds for 9 weeks
o Results: Rapid reduction in LDL cholesterol levels

Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel. 2001. Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD: NIH Publication No. 01-3670.

Nutrients
Ahrens, S., M. Venkatachalam, A.M. Mistry, K.G. Lapsley, S.K. Sathe. 2005. Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) protein (quality). Plant Foods For Human Nutrition 60:123-128.
o True Protein Digestibility values for almonds are: 88 for Carmel, 92 for Mission and 82 for Nonpariel.
o The Protein Digestibility Combined Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) is 0.44.

Chen, C.-Y., K. Lapsley, J. Blumberg. 2006. A nutrition and health perspective on almondsJ. Sci. Food Agric. 86:2245-2250.
o Conclusions: Almonds are a nutrient-dense source of Vitamin E, manganese, copper, phosphorus, fiber, riboflavin, MUFAs and protein. Incremental almond consumption can decrease LDL cholesterol by 1% and habitual ingestion does not lead to weight gain, are low on the glycemic index scale and are high in polyphenols.

Fraser, G.E., H.W. Bennett, K.B. Jaceldo-Siegl, J. Sabaté. 2002. Effect on body weight of a free 76 kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 21(3):275-283.
o People: 81 men and women
o Diet: Eating 2 ounces almonds every day for one year
o Results: eating 320 calories/2 oz of almonds each day for one year did not significantly lead to weight gain

Jaceldo-Siegl, K., J. Sabate, S. Rajaram, G.E. Fraser. 2004. Long-term almond supplementation without advice on food replacement induces favourable nutrient modifications to the habitual diets of free-living individualsBr. J. Nutr. 92:533-540.
o People: 43 healthy men and 38 healthy women, 25-70 years old
o Diet: 6 month habitual consumption of almonds
o Results: Intakes of MUFA, PUFA, fiber, vegetable protein, alpha-tocopherol, copper and magnesium significantly increased and intakes of trans fats, animal protein, sodium, cholesterol and sugars significantly decreased

Jambazian, P.R, E. Haddad, S. Rajaram, J. Tanzman, J. Sabate. 2005. Almonds in the diet simultaneously improve plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and reduce plasma lipids. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 105:449-454.
o People: 16 men and women (41 years old +/- 13)
o Diet: Incorporation of almonds into diet
o Results: Incorporation of almonds into diet helped to meet the daily recommended amount of 15 mg/day of alpha tocopherol intake

Joice, C.K. Lapsley, J.B. Blumberg. 2008. Almonds as a value added ingredient: Benefits of a nutrient rich, high fibre nut. Agro Food Ind. Hi Tec. 19(3):16-18.
o Almonds are high in fiber,  phytochemicals, MUFAs and Vitamin E, which are associated with reduced risk of obesity, cancer, heart disease and diabetes through promoting satiety, reduced cholesterol levels, blood sugar control

Mandalari, G., A. Tomaino, T. Arcoraci, M. Martorana, V. Lo Turco, F. Cacciola, G.T. Rich, C.Bisignano, A. Saija, P. Dugo, K.L. Cross, M.L. Parker, K.W. Waldron, M.S.J. Wickham. 2010. Characterization of polyphenols, lipids and dietary fibre from almond skins (Amygdalus communis L.). J. Food Comp. Anal. 23(2):166-174.
o Conclusions: Total phenolic content was higher in natural almonds as compared with blanched almonds or blanching water. In addition, the almond skins contain both lipids and fiber, which contribute to fermentation within the large intestine.

Richardson, D.P., A. Astrup, A. Cocaul, P. Ellis. 2009. The nutritional and health benefits of almonds: a healthy food choice. Food Sci. Tech. Bull.: Funct. Foods 6(4):1-10.
o Conclusions: Almonds are high in MUFAs, PUFAs, protein, fiber, potassium and many essential nutrients, while they are low in sodium. Almonds have been shown not to significantly contribute to weight gain when almonds are incorporated into a healthy diet

United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Health and Human Services. 2005. Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2009. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page 17.

Portfolio Eating Plan
Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, D.A. Faulkner, T. Kemp, A. Marchie, T.H. Nguyen, J.M.W. Wong, R.de Souza, A. Emam, E. Vidgen, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer. 2008. Long-term effects of a plant-based dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods on blood pressure. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 62(6):781-788.
o People: 50 hyperlipidemic subjects
o Diet: Diets high in sterols, soy, protein, viscous fiber and almonds for 1 year
o Results: Diet high in cholesterol lowering foods decreased BP significantly

Jenkins, D.J.A, C.W.C. Kendall, D.A. Faulkner, T. Nguyen, T. Kemp, A. Marchie, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, E. Vidgen, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, C. Holmes, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, P.W. Connelly, W. Singer. 2006. Assessment of the longer-term effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemiaAm. J. Clin. Nutr. 83:582-591.
o People: 55 middle-aged men and women
o Diet: Diet high in sterols (1 g/1,000 calories), soy protein (22.5 g/ 1,000 calories), viscous fiber (10 g/ 1,000 calories) and almonds (23 g/1,000 calories) for 1 year
o Results: One-third of the participants lowered their LDL cholesterol by 20 percent. Two-thirds of the group was eating a mixed diet, which shows that a vegan or vegetarian diet does not need to be followed to achieve this result.

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D. Faulkner, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, E. Vidgen, E.A. Trautwein, K.G Lapsley, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer, P.W. Connelly. 2005. Direct comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods with a statin in hypercholesterolemic participants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81:380-387.
o People: 34 hyperlipidemic participants
o Diet: 3-month diet of very low saturated fat (control), control diet plus statin or diet high in sterols, protein, almonds and viscous fiber (portfolio diet)
o Results: The portfolio and statin groups did not differ significantly, leading to the idea that the portfolio eating plan might work interchangeably with statin treatment

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulkner, A.R. Josse, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, T.J. Li, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer, P.W. Connelly. 2005. Direct comparison of dietary portfolio vs statin on C-reactive protein. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 59:851-860.
o People: 34 hyperlipidemic subjects
o Diet: 1-month diet of very-low saturated fat (control), lovastatin (statin), or diet high in plant sterols, soy protein, almonds and viscous fiber (portfolio)
o Results: Cholesterol lowering food consumption (portfolio eating plan) reduced C-reactive protein to a similar extent as statin treatment

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D. Faulkner, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, E.A. Trautwein, T.L. Parker, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, P.W. Connelly. 2003. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism 52(11):1478 -1483.
o People: 34 hyperlipidemic subjects
o Diet: Eat one of three diets: very low saturated fat diet (control), control diet + statin drug, or diet high in plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fiber and almonds
o Results: The portfolio eating plan’s ability to lower risk factors for CVD is comparable to the ability of statins

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulkner, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, E.A. Trautwein, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, P.W. Connelly. 2003. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol - lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 290(4):502-510.
o People: 34 hyperlipidemic subjects
o Diet: Eat one of three diets: very low saturated fat diet (control), control diet + statin drug, or diet high in plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fiber and almonds
o Results: The portfolio eating plan’s ability to lower risk factors for CVD is comparable to the ability of statins

Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. 2004. A Dietary Portfolio: Maximal Reduction of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol with DietCurr Athersscler Rep. 6(6):492-8.
o Conclusion: The portfolio eating plan lowers cholesterol by 30% and produced significant reductions in CHD risk.

Lamarche, B., S. Desroches, D.J.A. Jenkins, C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulker, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, E. Trautwein, T.L. Parker, R.G. Josse, L. A. Leiter, P. W. Connelly. 2004. Combined effects of a dietary portfolio of plant sterols, vegetable protein,viscous fibre and almonds on LDL particle size. Br. J. Nutr. 92:657-663.
o People: 12 patients with mildly elevated LDL levels
o Diet: Combining very-low saturated fat diet with soybeans, plant sterols, viscous fiber and almonds
o Results: Inclusion of cholesterol lowering foods in combination with decreasing ingestion of saturated fat reduced LDL particle size and reduces the risk of CVD


Prebiotics
Mandalari, G., R.M. Faulks, C. Bisignano, K.W. Waldron, A. Narbad, M.S.J. Wickham. 2010. In vitro evaluation of the prebiotic properties of almond skins (Amygdalus communis L.). FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 304:116-122.
o Results: Almond skins can act as potential prebiotics because the fiber from the almond skins alter the bacteria in the gut

Mandalari, G., A. Tomaino, T. Arcoraci, M. Martorana, V. Lo Turco, F. Cacciola, G.T. Rich, C.
Bisignano, A. Saija, P. Dugo, K.L. Cross, M.L. Parker, K.W. Waldron, M.S.J. Wickham. 2010.
Characterization of polyphenols, lipids and dietary fibre from almond skins (Amygdalus
communis L.).
 J. Food Comp. Anal. 23(2):166-174.
o Conclusions: When comparing natural almond skins and ground blanched almonds, the skins show higher antioxidant activity and fiber than the blanched almonds and are high in lipids. The almond skins have the ability to ferment in the large intestines and act as a probiotic 

Mandalari, G., C. Nueno-Palop, G. Bisignano, M.S.J. Wickham, A. Narbad. 2008. Potential prebiotic properties of almond (Amygdalus communis L.) seeds. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(14):4264-4270.
o Finely ground almonds were shown to significantly change the bacterial landscape of the gut, which resulted in growth of bifidobacteria and Eubacterium rectale.  

Weight Management
Alfenas RC, Mattes RD. Effect of Fat Sources on Satiety. Obes Res 2003 Feb; 11(2):183-7
o People: 20 participants
o Diet: Diet of muffin made with either canola oil, peanut oil or salted butter
o Results: There is no difference in satiety based on type of fat ingested.

Burton-Freeman, B., P.A. Davis, B.O. Schneeman. 2004. Interaction of fat availability and sex on postprandial satiety and cholecystokinin after mixed-food meals 1–3. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80:1207-1214.
o Results: The dietary fat release from whole almonds or almond oil is dependent on gender. The release is dependent on the ability of fat to stimulate CCK release in women, but does not appear to follow the same process in men.

Cassady, B.A., J.H. Hollis, A.D. Fulford, R.V. Considine, R.D. Mattes. 2009. Mastication of almonds: effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:794-800.
o People: 13 healthy adults (BMI 23.1 +/- 0.4)
o Diet:  Participants chewed 55 grams almonds either 10, 25 or 40 times
o Results: The longer almonds are chewed (i.e.- 40 times), the more satisfied and less hungry one will be longer (measured up to 2 hrs)

Chen, C.-Y., K. Lapsley, J. Blumberg. 2006. A nutrition and health perspective on almonds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86:2245-2250.
o Rich source of Vitamin E, manganese, magnesium, copper, phosphorus, fiber, riboflavin, MUFAs and protein
o Habitual almond consumption does not lead to weight gain

Fraser, G.E., H.W. Bennett, K.B. Jaceldo-Siegl, J. Sabaté. 2002. Effect on body weight of a free 76 kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 21(3):275 -283.
o People: 81 men and women
o Diet: Eating 2 ounces almonds every day for one year
o Results: eating 320 calories/2 oz of almonds each day for one year did not significantly lead to weight gain

Hollis, J., R. Mattes. 2007. Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humansBr. J. Nutr. 98:651-656.
o People: 20 women
o Diet: 1440 kJ (344 kcal) of almonds consumed each day
o Results: the inclusion of 1440 kJ (about 2 ounces) of almonds each day does not contribute to weight gain

Jaceldo-Siegl, K., J. Sabate, S. Rajaram, G.E. Fraser. 2004. Long-term almond supplementation without advice on food replacement induces favourable nutrient modifications to the habitual diets of free-living individuals. Br. J. Nutr. 92:533-540.
o People: 81 people
o Diet: 320 calories worth of almonds (about 2oz.) each day for one year
o Results: Did not significantly increase body weight. Calories from almonds replaced other foods and increase vitamin E, fiber and magnesium intake. 

Joice, C.K. Lapsley, J.B. Blumberg. 2008. Almonds as a value added ingredient: Benefits of a nutrient rich, high fibre nut. Agro Food Ind. Hi Tec. 19(3):16-18.
o Almonds are high in fiber,  phytochemicals, MUFAs and Vitamin E, which are associated with reduced risk of obesity, cancer, heart disease and diabetes through promoting satiety, reduced cholesterol levels, blood sugar control

Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ, Marchie A, Ren Y, Ellis PR, Lapsley KG. 2003. Energy Availability from Almonds: Implications for Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Health. A Randomized Controlled Dose-Response Trial. FASEBJ. 17(4): A339.

Mattes, R.D., M.L. Dreher. 2010. Nuts and healthy body weight maintenance mechanismsAsia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 19(1):137-141.
o Conclusions: 55-75% of energy contribution of nuts is offset by dietary compensation, another 10-15% by fecal losses and potententially another 10% by energy expenditure

Mattes, R.D. 2008. The energetics of nut consumptionAsia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 17(S1):337-339.
Results: Nuts are energy dense and therefore, would be hypothesized to increase weight with consumption, but multiple studies show an inverse relationship with nut consumption and BMI.Rajaram, S., J. Sabate. 2006. Nuts, body weight and insulin resistance. Br. J. Nutr. 96(Supp. 2): S79-S86.
o Conclusions: Adding almond products to diet causes lasting and greater weight loss among obese subjects while improving insulin sensitivity.

Richardson, D.P., A. Astrup, A. Cocaul, P. Ellis. 2009. The nutritional and health benefits of
almonds: a healthy food choice.
 Food Sci. Tech. Bull.: Funct. Foods 6(4):1-10.
o Conclusions: Almonds are high in MUFAs, PUFAs, protein, fiber, potassium and many essential nutrients, while they are low in sodium. Almonds have been shown not to significantly contribute to weight gain when almonds are incorporated into a healthy diet

Turnball WH, Walton J, Leeds AR. Acute Effects of Mycoprotein on Subsequent Energy Intake and Appetite Variables. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 58(4): 507-12.
o People: 13 women
o Diet: Ingestion of meal containing either mycoprotein or chicken
o Results: Hunger level and caloric intake after the mycoprotein containing meal were lower compared to chicken-containing meal, suggesting that fiber can help decrease hunger and subsequent caloric intake.

Wien, M.A., J.M. Sabate, D.N. Ikle, S.E. Cole, F.R. Kandeel. 2003. Almonds vs complex
carbohydrates in a weight reduction program.
 Int. J. Obesity 27:1365-1372.
o People: 65 overweight and obese adults (age: 27-79 y, body mass index (BMI): 27-55 kg/m(2)).
o Diet: Moderate fat diet with almonds vs. low fat diet for 6 months (same number of calories, differing fat content).
o Results: moderate fat group with almonds lost more weight than the low fat group