Health & Nutrition
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Heart Health

Almonds Have Heart

The heart-smart benefits of almonds are good news for just about everyone; especially since cardiovascular disease holds the spot as the leading cause of death among men and women in the U.S.

  • California Almonds are cholesterol-free, have only 1 gram of saturated fat, and have 13 grams of unsaturated fat per one ounce serving.
  • But there’s more, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Scientific evidence suggests, but does not prove, that eating 1.5 ounces per day of most nuts, such as almonds, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease.” U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend that the majority of your fat intake be unsaturated. One serving of almonds (28 grams, or about 23 almonds) has 13 grams of unsaturated fat and only 1 gram of saturated fat.
  • You can look forward to having a little help in the grocery aisles because the American Heart Association® has certified whole almonds to display the sought-after Heart-Check mark. Now it’s easy for everyone out there to identify almonds as a heart-smart option.ii

i The Heart and Stroke Foundation's dietitians have reviewed this product and it meets nutrient criteria developed by Health Check based on recommendations in Canada's Food Guide. A fee is paid to help run this voluntary, not-for-profit program.

ii All certified nuts, including salted varieties, must meet the American Heart Association’s® nutritional requirements which include a limit of 140mg or less of sodium per label serving size. Please note that the Heart-Check Food Certification does not apply to hyperlinks, recipes, or research unless expressly stated. For more information, see the American Heart Association’s® nutrition guidelines at American Heart Association® and the Heart-Check Mark are registered trademarks of the American Heart Association®.



Start Your Engines

As one of the three main macronutrients—fat and carbohydrates round out the trifecta—protein is key in repairing and maintaining your body, helping you power through that meeting marathon at work (or that actual marathon, if that’s more your thing). Almonds also have lots of other revitalizing, satisfying nutrients to keep you going strong.

  • A handful of almonds provide 6 grams of protein, 4 grams of filling fiber and 13 grams of “good” monounsaturated fat to keep you feeling energized and satisfied.
  • If you like to mix things up, other almond forms contain protein in every ounce, too—such as almond butter (6g per ounce serving) and almond flour (6g per ¼ cup serving).
  • It’s pretty common knowledge that nuts are a good source of plant-based protein, but not all nuts are created equal. When compared ounce for ounce, almonds are the tree nut highest in protein
Weight Management

The Skinny on Fat

As much as we hate to face it, there is no quick fix for weight loss. Nope, no magic pill or 1-minute workout. In the real world, the not-so-secret secret to managing your waistline is an active lifestyle and a calorie-conscious diet of nutritious foods that can help stave off hunger and satisfy your cravings. Almonds happen to be one such food.

  • Almond benefits provide 4 grams of filling fiber, "good" monounsaturated fats, and 6 grams of protein to keep you feeling energized and satisfied.1
  • Almonds are considered a good fit with many popular weight-loss plans because they provide stellar satiety, plentiful nutrients per calorie, and great, go-with-every-food flavor and crunch.
  • What about calories in almonds? A 2012 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that a one-ounce serving of almonds (about 23 nuts) has just 129 calories as opposed to the previous count of 160. That's a 20% decrease.

Even better, almonds are also super simple to integrate into your diet. Just grab them as a great weight loss snack or make them part of a meal, and you could see the scales tip in your favor.

1. Good news about good fat: U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend that the majority of your fat intake be unsaturated. One serving of almonds (28g) has 13g of unsaturated fat and only 1g of saturated fat.

Powerful Nutrition

No-Nonsense Nutrition

Just one crunchy handful of almonds is a satisfying way to load up on important vitamins and minerals that your body needs to dominate every hour. Allow us to elaborate on almond nutrition…

  • Almonds are an excellent source of vitamin E, magnesium and manganese, and a good source of fiber, copper, phosphorous and riboflavin.
  • A one-ounce serving has 13 grams of “good” unsaturated fats, just 1 gram of saturated fat and is always cholesterol free.1
  • When compared ounce for ounce, almonds are the tree nut highest in protein, fiber, calcium, vitamin E, riboflavin and niacin.

Cue the Calcium

Almonds’ nutrition is no one-trick pony. In fact, every crunch carries lots of important vitamins and minerals, including one that most people don’t even think of in nuts: calcium. Usually associated with dairy and dark leafy greens, calcium works with vitamin D to build your bones and keep your body’s systems running at peak performance.

  • When compared ounce for ounce, almonds are the nut highest in calcium, boasting 75mg per ounce.

Check out these nutrition facts for almonds to see how they stack up to other tree nuts.

Gluten Free

Getting More Out of Gluten-Free

Almonds are endlessly versatile and always enjoyable, so for those living with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity, they’re the pantry essential you don’t want to live without.

Ten Tips to Eating Gluten-Free with Almonds

  1. Add creamy perfection to your morning  cup o’ joe or your favorite gluten-free cereal with a splash of almond milk.
  2. Take back baked goods by using almond flour as a substitute for regular flour.
  3. Get the gluten-free festivities pumping by serving whole, natural almonds as a crowd-pleasing, gluten-free party snack.
  4. Give your side dish an extra kick of crunch by sprinkling sliced or slivered almonds on top. Flavored varieties can spice up or sweeten the deal.
  5. Use almond flour or crushed almonds instead of breadcrumbs as a coating on fish or poultry. Is it dinnertime yet?
  6. Snack on a handful of whole almonds anywhere anytime. No gluten equals no worries.
  7. Give traditional crackers a run for their money and crunch into almond crackers (homemade or store-bought) as a snack. Your cheese platter won’t mind them one bit either.
  8. Use almond butter to thicken up smoothies or slather it on gluten-free bread at lunch. You can lick your fingers too—just make sure no one’s looking.
  9. Swap crispy croutons with crunchy almonds for a more satisfying (and likely, more sensational) salad.
  10. Give chocolate desserts an added crunch without any added gluten by making almonds part of the mix. Health bonus: almonds and dark chocolate are an antioxidant match made in heaven. 

Gluten-Free, Flavor-Full Recipes

To all the gluten-free folks out there, there’s just one thing you need to know: we’ve got you covered. With the help of Elana Amsterdam, author of The Gluten Free Almond Flour Cookbook, and Chef John Csukor, we developed exclusive recipes, just for you! Not to mention we also have more than 100 additional options in our growing recipe center.

Gluten Freedom with Almond Flour

Start those ovens, everyone (and we do mean everyone) because almond flour has the power to meet all your gluten-free baking needs while also adding top-shelf nutrition and flavor to all your favorite recipes.

Look to stock your stash of this pantry must-have wherever gluten-free products are sold. Note: if you can’t find it, it may be in the refrigerator or freezer section or stores, or you can even make your own by grinding whole almonds in a food processor.

Almond Flour Fast Facts

  • Unlike many gluten free flours that contain several different inclusions, almond flour has just one ingredient (surprise, it’s almonds) with a slightly sweet, buttery taste ideal for sweet or savory recipes.
  • Far from being gritty or dry, almond flour has a smooth texture that’s picture-perfect for baking. Almond meal, on the other hand, has a slightly coarser texture and is made from whole almonds ground with the skin on. Most baking recipes call for almond flour, so keep tabs on that if you’re substituting. 
  • A one cup serving of almond flour bakes protein (23g), fiber (12g), antioxidants and calcium (235mg) into every creation. Click here for the full nutrition lowdown.

Taking On Diabetes

More and more research is showing that adding almonds to a diabetes-friendly diet may actually help improve certain risk factors for the disease.


A study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition demonstrated that consuming an American Diabetes Association-recommended diet where 20% of total calorie intake came from almonds helped improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with prediabetes. Insulin sensitivity is a measure of how well your body processes glucose. The study results also indicated that adding almonds to this diet can also help maintain healthy cholesterol levels. Nutrients in almonds, such as fiber and unsaturated fat have been shown to help maintain healthy cholesterol and blood glucose levels.*

Study Limitations: The single fasting insulin sample and sample size are limitations in this study, as well as possible errors in patient self-reporting of dietary intakes and differences in carbohydrate intakes between the two groups.

Breakfast and Glucose Levels

According to a study published in the Journal of Nutrition & Metabolism, consuming a breakfast containing almonds, which is a low glycemic index food, can aid in stabilizing blood glucose levels for the better part of the day. This is good news if you are looking for a food to keep you going until the clock strikes lunch. In addition, study participants (14 adults with impaired glucose tolerance, average age of 39 years) felt fuller for a longer period of time.**   

Study Limitations: Although the test meals were matched for available carbohydrate content, they were not matched on energy value or macronutrient composition. Additional research is needed to assess the long-term effects of including almonds in the breakfast meal on blood glucose concentrations.

Heart Disease and Diabetes

People who have diabetes often are at higher risk for heart disease. Results from a study published in Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental suggests that incorporating almonds into the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step II Diet can improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. The results also suggested that adding almonds to the NCEP step II diet can help maintain healthy blood cholesterol levels in these patients. ***

Study Limitations: Limitations of this study include the sample size, length of the study, lack of an oral glucose tolerance test, and lack of hemoglobin A1c readings. The sample size for this study is considered small for a feeding study, so the results may not be extrapolated to apply to a larger population. Though the study showed that almond consumption lowered fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, in order to gauge the effect on insulin actions, an oral glucose tolerance test is needed, and none was administered. Lastly, because hemoglobin A1c is a measure of blood glucose readings over a 2-3 month period, it was not assessed in this study, as the study interventions only lasted for 4 weeks at a time.

* Wien M, et al. Almond consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with prediabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 2010;29(3):189-97.

**Mori AM, Considine RV, Mattes RD. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial. Nutr Metab 2011;8(1):6 doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-8-6.

*** Li SC, Liu YH, Liu JF, Chang WH, Chen CM, Chen CY. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 2011;60:474-479


Almond Nutrition Research: State of the Science (PDF | Updated September 2017)


Su, M., M. Venkatachalam, T.M. Gradziel, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2015. Application of mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4C10-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for amandin detection in almond (Prunus dulcis L.) genotypes and hybrids. Food Sci. Tech. 60:535-543. Abstract

Dhakal, S., C. Liu, Y. Zhang, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe, V.M. Balasubramaniam. 2014. Effect of high pressure processing on the immunoreactivity of almond milk. Food Res. Int. 62:215 -222. Abstract

Mandalari, G., N.M. Rigby, C. Bisignano, R.B. Lo Curto, F. Mullholland, M. Su, M. Venkatachalam, J.M. Robotham, L.N. Willison, K. Lapsley, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2014. Effect of food matrix and processing on release of almond protein during simulated digestion. Food Sci. Tech. 59:439-447. Abstract

Su. M., M. Venkatachalam, C. Liu, Y. Zhang, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2013. A murine monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for almond (Prunus dulcis L.) detection. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:10823-10833. Abstract Available via PubMed

Willison, L.N., Q. Zhang, M. Su, S.S. Teuber, S.K. Sathe, K.H. Roux. 2013. Conformational epitope mapping of Pru du 6, a major allergen from almond nut. Mol. Immunol. 55(3-4):253-263. Abstract Available via PubMed

Kshirsagar, H.H., P. Fajer, G.M. Sharma, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2011. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of almond and cashew nut seed 11S legumins, amandin and anacardein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:386-393. Abstract Available via PubMed

Willison, L.N., P. Tripathi, G. Sharma, S.S. Teuber, S.K. Sathe, K.H. Roux. 2011. Cloning, Expression and Patient IgE Reactivity of Recombinant Pru du 6, an 11S Globulin from Almond. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 156(3):267-281. Abstract Available via PubMed

Tiwari, R.S., M. Venkatachalam, G.M. Sharma, M. Su, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2010. Effect of food matrix on amandin, almond (Prunus dulcis L.) major protein, immunorecognition and recovery. Lwt - Food Science And Technology 43:675-683. Abstract

Su, M., M. Venkatachalam, S.S. Teuber, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2004. Impact of γ-irradiation and thermal processing on the antigenicity of almond, cashew nut and walnut proteins. J. Sci. Food Agric 84:1119-1125. Abstract

Sathe, S.K., W.J. Wolf, K.H. Roux, S.S. Teuber, M. Venkatachalam, K.W.C. Sze-Tao. 2002. Biochemical characterization of amandin, the major storage protein in almond (Prunus dulcis L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(15):4333-4341. Abstract Available via PubMed

Venkatachalam, M., S.S. Teuber, K.H. Roux, S.K. Sathe. 2002. Effects of roasting, blanching, autoclaving, and microwave heating on antigenicity of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) proteins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(12):3543-3548. Abstract Available via PubMed

Roux, K.H., S.S. Teuber, J.M. Robotham, S.K. Sathe. 2001. Detection and stability of the major almond allergen in foods. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:2131-2136. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sathe, S.K., S.S. Teuber, T.M. Gradziel, K.H. Roux. 2001. Electrophoretic and immunological analyses of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) genotypes and hybrids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49(4):2043-2052. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sze-Tao, K.W.C., S.K. Sathe. 2000. Functional properties and in vitro digestibility of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) protein isolate. Food Chem. 69:153-160. Abstract

Acosta, M.R., K.H. Roux, S.S. Teuber, S.K. Sathe. 1999. Production and characterization of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to almond (Prunus amygdalus L) major storage protein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:4053-4059. Abstract

Wolf, W.J., S.K. Sathe. 1998. Ultracentrifugal and polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic studies of extractability and stability of almond meal proteins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 78:511-521. Abstract


Xie, L., B.W. Bolling. 2014. Characterization of stilbenes in California almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-MS. Food Chem. 148:300-306. Abstract Available via PubMed

Xie, L., A.V. Roto, B.W. Bolling. 2013. Characterization of ellagitannins, gallotannins, and bound proanthocyanidins from California almond (Prunus dulcis) varieties. J. Agric.Food Chem. 60(49):12151-12156. Abstract Available via PubMed

Yada, S., K. Lapsley, G. Huang. 2011. A review of composition studies of cultivated almonds: Macronutrients and micronutrients. J. Food Comp. Anal. 24:469-480. Abstract Available via PubMed

Bolling, B.W., G. Dolnikowski, J.B. Blumberg, C.-Y.O. Chen. 2010. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of California almonds depend on cultivar and harvest year. Food Chem. 122:819-825. Available via Open Access

Bolling, B.W., J.B. Blumberg, C.-Y.O. Chen. 2010. The influence of roasting, pasteurisation, and storage on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of California almond skins. Food Chem. 123:1040-1047. Abstract

Mandalari, G., A. Tomaino, T. Arcoraci, M. Martorana, V. Lo Turco, F. Cacciola, G.T. Rich, C. Bisignano, A. Saija, P. Dugo, K.L. Cross, M.L. Parker, K.W. Waldron, M.S.J. Wickham. 2010. Characterization of polyphenols, lipids and dietary fibre from almond skins (Amygdalus communis L.). J. Food Comp. Anal. 23:166-174.

Mandalari, G., C. Bisignano, M. D'Arrigo, G. Ginestra, A. Arena, A. Tomaino, M.S.J. Wickham. 2010. Antimicrobial potential of polyphenols extracted from almond skins. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 51(1):1-7. Available via Open Access

Bolling, B.W, G. Dolnikowski, J.B. Blumberg, C.-Y.O. Chen. 2009. Quantification of almond skin polyphenols by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Food Sci. 74(4):C326 -C332. Available via Open Access

Chen, C.-Y., J.B. Blumberg. 2008. In vitro activity of almond skin polyphenols for scavenging free radicals and inducing quinone reductase. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(12):4427-4434. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sathe, S.K., N.P. Seeram, H.H. Kshirsagar, D. Heber, K.A. Lapsley. 2008. Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds. J. Food Sci. 73(9):C607-C614. Available via Open Access

Chen, C.-Y., P.E. Milbury, S.-K. Chung, J. Blumberg. 2007. Effect of almond skin polyphenols and quercetin on human LDL and apolipoprotein. B-100 oxidation and conformation. J. Nutr. Biochem. 18:785-794.  Abstract Available via PubMed

Li, N., X. Jia, C.-Y.O. Chen, J.B. Blumberg, Y. Song, W. Zhang, X. Zhang, G. Ma, J. Chen. 2007. Almond consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in male smokers. J. Nutr. 137:2717-2722. Available via Open Access

Jia, X., N. Li, W. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. Lapsley, G. Huang, J. Blumberg, G. Ma, J. Chen. 2006. A pilot study on the effects of almond consumption on DNA damage and oxidative stress in smokers. Nutr. Cancer 54(2):179-183. Abstract Available via PubMed

Milbury, P.E., C.-Y. Chen, G.G. Dolnikowski, J.B. Blumberg. 2006. Determination of flavonoids and phenolics and their distribution in almonds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:5027-5033. Abstract Available via PubMed

Wijeratne, S.S.K., M.M. Abou-Zaid, F. Shahidi. 2006. Antioxidant polyphenols in almond and its coproducts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:312-318. Abstract Available via PubMed

Wijeratne, S.S.K., R. Amarowicz, F. Shahidi. 2006. Antioxidant activity of almonds and their by-products in food model systems. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 83(3):223-230. Abstract

Amarowicz, R., T. Agnieszka, A. Troszynska, F. Shahidi. 2005. Antioxidant activity of almond seed extract and its fractions. J. Food Lipids 12:344-358. Abstract

Chen, C.-Y., P.E. Milbury, K.G. Lapsley, J.B. Blumberg. 2005. Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with Vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. J. Nutr. 135:1366-1373. Available via Open Access

Sang, S., G. Li, S. Tian, K. Lapsley, R.E. Stark, R.K. Pandey, R.T. Rosen, C.-T. Ho. 2003. An unusual diterpene glycoside from the nuts of almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Tetrahedron Lett. 44:1199-1202. Abstract

Frison, S., P. Sporns. 2002. Variation in the flavonol glycoside composition of almond seedcoats as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (23):6818-6822. Abstract Available via PubMed

Frison-Norrie, S., P. Sporns. 2002. Identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in almond seedcoats using MALDI-TOF MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(10):2782-2787. Abstract Available via PubMed

Milbury, P.E., C.-Y. Chen, H.-K. Kwak, J.B. Blumberg. 2002. Almond skins polyphenolics act synergistically with α-tocopherol to increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins to oxidation. Free Radical Res. 36(1):78-80. Abstract Available via Scribd

Sang, S., X. Cheng, H.-Y. Fu, D.-E. Shieh, N. Bai, K.G. Lapsley, R.E. Stark, R.T. Rosen, C.-T. Ho. 2002. New type sesquiterpene lactone from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Tetrahedron Lett. 43:2547-2549. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sang, S., K.G. Lapsley, W.S. Jeong, P.A. Lachance, C.-T. Ho, R.T. Rosen. 2002. Antioxidative phenolic compounds isolated from almond skins (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(8):2459-2463. Abstract

Sang, S., H. Kikuzaki, K. Lapsley, R.T. Rosen, N. Nakatani, C.-T. Ho. 2002. Sphingolipid and other constituents from almond nuts (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(16):4709-4712. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sang, S., K.G. Lapsley, R.T. Rosen, C.-T. Ho. 2002. New prenylated benzoic acid and other constituents from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus Batsch). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(3):607-609. Abstract Available via PubMed

Siriwardahana, S.S.K.W., F. Shahidi. 2002. Antiradical activity of extracts of almond and its by-products. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 79(9):903-908. Abstract

Diabetes + Metabolic Syndrome

Beatrice, A., G. Shivaji. 2015. Effect of almond supplementation on the anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters and blood pressure levels of men with Metabolic Syndrome. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 52(2):184-191.

Sweazea, K.L., C.S. Johnston, K.D. Ricklefs, K.N. Petersen. 2014. Almond supplementation in the absence of dietary advice significantly reduces C-reactive protein in subjects with type 2 diabetes J. Funct. Foods 10:252-259.

Liu, J.-F., Y.-H. Liu, C.-M. Chen, W.-H. Chang, C.-Y. O. Chen. 2013. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover feeding trial. Eur. J. Nutr. 52:927-935. Abstract Available via PubMed

Kamil, A., C.-Y. O. Chen. 2012. Health benefits of almonds beyond cholesterol reduction. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60(27):6694-6702. Abstract Available via PubMed

Cohen, A.E., C.S. Johnston. 2011. Almond ingestion at mealtime reduces postprandial glycemia and chronic ingestion reduces hemoglobin A1c in individuals with well controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 60(9):1312-1317. Abstract Available via PubMed

Li, S.-C., Y.-H. Liu, J.-F. Liu, W.-H. Chang, C.-M. Chen, C.-Y.O. Chen. 2011. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metab. Clin. Exp. 60:474-479. Abstract Available via PubMed

Mori, A.M., R.V. Considine, R.D. Mattes. 2011. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial. Nutr. & Metab. 8 (6):1-8. Abstract Available via PubMed

Mori, A., K. Lapsley, R.D. Mattes. 2011. Chapter 19. Almonds (Prunus dulcis): Post-Ingestive Hormonal Response. Nuts & Seeds In Health And Disease Prevention In V. R.

Preedy, R. R. Watson, V. B. Patel (Editors), Nuts & Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention (1st ed.) (pp.167-173).

Wien, M., D. Bleich, M. Raghuwanshi, S. Gould-Forgerite, J. Gomes, L. Monahan-Couch, K. Oda. 2010. Almond consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with prediabetes J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 29(3):189-197. Abstract Available via PubMed

Josse, A.R., C.W.C. Kendall, L.S.A. Augustin, P.R. Ellis, D.J.A. Jenkins. 2007. Almonds and postprandial glycemia – a dose-response study. Metabolism 56:400-404. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A.R. Josse, S. Salvatore, F. Brighenti, L.S.A. Augustin, P.R. Ellis, E. Vidgen, A.V. Rao. 2006. Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia and oxidative damage in healthy individuals. J. Nutr. 136:2987-2992. Available via Open Access

Scott, L.W., A. Balasubramanyam, K.T. Kimball, A.K. Aherns, C.M. Fordis, Jr., C.M. Ballantyne. 2003. Long-term, randomized clinical trial of two diets in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26(8):2481-2482. Abstract Available via PubMed

Lovejoy, J.C., M.M. Most, M. Lefevre, F.L. Greenway, J.C. Rood. 2002. Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76:1000-1006. Available via PubMed

Heart Health

Musa-Veloso K, Paulionis L, Poon T, Lee H-Y. The effects of almond consumption on fasting blood lipid levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Nutritional Science. 2016;5(e34):1-15. Available Via Open Access

Berryman CE, West SG, Fleming JA, Bordi PL, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of Daily Almond Consumption on Cardiometabolic Risk and Abdominal Adiposity in Healthy Adults With Elevated LDL-Cholesterol: A Randomized Controlled Trial Journal of the American Heart Association. 2015;4(1): e000993. Available Via Open Access

Chen, C.-Y., M. Holbrook, M.-A. Duess, M. M. Dohadwala, N.M. Hamburg, B.F. Asztalos, P.E. Milbury, J.B. Blumberg, J.A. Vita. 2015. Effect of almond consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial. Nutrition Journal 14(61):1-11. Available Via Open Access

Ruisinger, J.F., C.A. Gibson, J.M. Backes, B.K. Smith, D.K. Sullivan, P.M. Moriarty, P. Kris-Etherton. 2015. Statins and almonds to lower lipoproteins (the STALL Study) J. Clin. Lipid. 9:58-64. Available Via Open Access

Nishi, S., C.W.C. Kendall, A.-M. Yoon, R.P. Bazinet, B. Bashyam, K.G. Lapsley, D.J.A. Jenkins. 2014. Effect of almond consumption on the serum fatty acid profile: a dose response study. Br. J. Nutr. 112(2):1137-1146. Abstract Available via PubMed

Berryman, C.E., A.G. Preston, W. Karmally, R.J. Deckelbaum, P.M. Kris-Etherton. 2011. Effects of almond consumption on the reduction of LDL-cholesterol: a discussion of potential mechanisms and future research directions. Nutrition Reviews 69(4):171-185. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jaceldo-Siegl, K., J. Sabate, M. Batech, G.E. Fraser. 2011. Influence of body mass index and serum lipids on the cholesterol-lowering effects of almonds in free-living individuals. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 21:S7-S13. Abstract Available via PubMed

Rajaram, S., K.M. Connell, J. Sabate. 2010. Effect of almond-enriched high monounsaturated fat diet on selected markers of inflammation: a randomized, controlled, crossover study Br. J. Nutr. 103:907-912. Abstract Available via PubMed

Berry, S.E.E., E.A. Tydeman, H.B. Lewis, R. Phalora, J. Rosborough, D.R. Picout, P.R. Ellis. 2008. Manipulation of lipid bioaccessibility of almond seeds influences postprandial lipemia in healthy human subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 88:922-929. Available Via Open Access

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, A.R. Josse, T.H. Nguyen, D.A. Faulkner, K.G. Lapsley, J. Blumberg. 2008. Almonds reduce biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in older hyperlipidemic subjects. J. Nutr. 138:908-913. Available via Open Access

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, A.R. Josse, T.H. Nguyen, D.A. Faulkner, K.G. Lapsley, W. Singer. 2008. Effect of almonds on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in nondiabetic hyperlipidemic subjects: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Metab. Clin. Exp. 57:882-887. Abstract Available via PubMed

Gigleux, I., D.J.A. Jenkins, C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulkner, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, P.W. Connelly, B. Lamarche. 2007. Comparison of a dietary portfolio diet of cholesterol-lowering foods and a statin on LDL particle size phenotype in hypercholesterolaemic participants. Br. J. Nutr. 98:1-8. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, D.A. Faulkner, T. Kemp, A. Marchie, T.H. Nguyen, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, E. Vidgen, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer. 2007. Long-term effects of a plant-based dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods on blood pressure. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 62:1-8. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, D.A. Faulkner, T. Nguyen, T. Kemp, A. Marchie, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, E. Vidgen, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, C. Holmes, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, P.W. Connelly, W. Singer. 2006. Assessment of the longer-term effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83:582-591. Available via Open Access

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, T.H. Nguyen, J. Teitel, A. Marchie, M. Chiu, A.Y. Taha, D.A. Faulkner, T. Kemp, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, E.A. Trautwein, K.G. Lapsley, C. Holmes, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer. 2006. Effect on hematologic risk factors for coronary heart disease of a cholesterol reducing diet. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 61:1-10. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jambazian, P.R, E. Haddad, S. Rajaram, J. Tanzman, J. Sabate. 2005. Almonds in the diet simultaneously improve plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and reduce plasma lipids. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 105:449-454. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D. Faulkner, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, E. Vidgen, E.A. Trautwein, K.G Lapsley, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer, P.W. Connelly. 2005. Direct  comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol lowering foods with a statin in hypercholesterolemic participants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81:380-387. Available via Open Access

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulkner, A.R. Josse, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, T.J. Li, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, W. Singer, P.W. Connelly. 2005. Direct comparison of dietary portfolio vs statin on C-reactive protein. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 59:851-860. Abstract Available via PubMed

Lamarche, B., S. Desroches, D.J.A. Jenkins, C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulker, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, E.A. Trautwein, T.L. Parker, R.G. Josse, L. A. Leiter, P. W. Connelly. 2004. Combined effects of a dietary portfolio of plant sterols, vegetable protein, viscous fibre and almonds on LDL particle size. Br. J. Nutr. 92:657-663. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D.A. Faulkner, J.M.W. Wong, R. de Souza, A. Emam, T.L. Parker, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, E.A. Trautwein, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, P.W. Connelly. 2003. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol - lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 290(4):502-510. Abstract Available via PubMed

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, D. Faulkner, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, E.A. Trautwein, T.L. Parker, R.G. Josse, L.A. Leiter, P.W. Connelly. 2003. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism 52(11):1478-1483. Abstract Available via PubMed

Sabaté, J., E. Haddad, J.S. Tanzman, P. Jambazian, S. Rajaram. 2003. Serum lipid response to the graduated enrichment of a Step I diet with almonds: A randomized feeding trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77:1379-1384. Available via Open Access

Spiller, G.A., A. Miller, K. Olivera, J. Reynolds, B. Miller, S.J. Morse, A. Dewell, J.W. Farquhar. 2003. Effects of plant-based diets high in raw or roasted almonds, or roasted almond butter on serum lipoproteins in humans. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 22(3):195-200. Abstract Available via PubMed

Hyson, D.A., B.O. Schneeman, P.A. Davis. 2002. Almonds and almond oil have similar effects on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in healthy men and women. J. Nutr. 132:703-707. Available via Open Access

Jenkins, D.J.A., C.W.C. Kendall, A. Marchie, T.L. Parker, P.W. Connelly, W. Qian, J.S. Haight, D. Faulkner, E. Vidgen, K.G. Lapsley, G.A. Spiller. 2002. Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Circulation 106:1327-1332. Available via Open Access

Xiao, Y., J.B. Wang, S.F. Yan, X.J. Lian, Y. Tang, and Y. Liu. 2002. The effects of nuts rich in monounsaturated fatty acids on the level of serum lipids in hyperlipidemia patients. China Public Health 18(8):931-932.(as translated from Chinese). Abstract Available via PubMed

Spiller, G.A., D.J.A. Jenkins, O. Bosello, J.E. Gates, L.N. Cragen, B. Bruce. 1998. Nuts and plasma lipids: An almond diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 17(3):285-290. Abstract Available via PubMed

Spiller, G.A., D.J.A. Jenkins, L.N. Cragen, J.E. Gates, O. Bosella, K. Berra, C. Rudd, M. Stevenson, R. Superko. 1992. Effect of a diet high in monounsaturated fat from almonds on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 11(2):126-130. Abstract Available via PubMed

Weight Management, Satiety + Gut Health

Gebauer SK, Novotny JA, Bornhorst GM, Baer DJ. 2016 Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds. Food & Function 7(10):4231-4238.  Available via Open Access

Bornhorst, G.M., K.C. Dreschsler, C.A. Montoya, S.M. Rutherfurd, P.J. Moughan, R.P. Singh. 2016. Gastric protein hydrolysis of raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig. Food Chem. 211:502-508. Abstract Available via PubMed

Burns, A.M., M.A. Zitt, C.C. Rowe, B. Langkamp-Henken, V . Mai, C. Nieves, Jr., M. Ukhanova, M.C. Christman, W.J. Dahl. 2016. Diet quality improves for parents and children when almonds are incorporated into their daily diet: a randomized, crossover study. Nutr. Res. 36:80-89. Available Via Open Access

Grundy, M.M.L., F. Carriere, A.R. Mackie, D.A. Gray, P.J. Butterworth, P.R Ellis. 2016. The role of plant cell wall encapsulation and porosity in regulating lipolysis during the digestion of almond seeds. Food & Function 7(1):69-78. Available Via Open Access

Grundy, M.M.-L., K. Lapsley, P.R. Ellis. 2016. A review of the impact of processing on nutrient bioaccessibility and digestion of almonds. Int. J. Food Sci .tech. doi:10.1111/ijfs.13192. Available Via Open Access

Liu, Z, W. Wang, G. Huang, W. Zhang and L. Ni. 2016. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the prebiotic effect of raw and roasted almonds (Prunus amygdalus). J. Sci. Food Agric. DOI 10.1002/jsfa.7604. Available via Open Access

Dalton, M., S. Hollingworth, J. Blundell, G. Finlayson. 2015. Weak Satiety Responsiveness Is a Reliable Trait Associated with Hedonic Risk Factors for Overeating among Women. Nutrients 7:7421-7436. Available Via Open Access

Grundy, M.M.L., T. Grassby, G. Mandalari, KW Waldron, PF Butterworth, SEE Berry, PR Ellis. 2015. Effect of mastication on lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 101:25-33. Available Via Open Access

Grundy, M.M.L., P.J. Wilde, P.J. Butterworth, R. Gray, P.R. Ellis. 2015. Impact of cell wall encapsulation of almonds on in vitro duodenal lipolysis Food Chem. 185:405-412. Available Via Open Access

Hull, S., R. Re, L. Chambers, A. Echaniz, M.S.J. Wickham. 2015. A mid-morning snack of almonds generates satiety and appropriate adjustment of subsequent food intake in healthy women. Eur. J. Nutr. 54:803-810. Available Via Open Access

Grassby, T., D.R. Picout, G. Mandalari, R.M. Faulks, C.W.C. Kendall, G.T. Rich, M.S.J. Wickham, K. Lapsley, P.R. Ellis. 2014. Modelling of nutrient bioaccessibility in almond seeds based on the fracture properties of their cell walls. Food And Function 5(12):3096-3106. Abstract Available via PubMed

Liu, Z., X. Lin, G. Huang, W. Zhang, P. Rao, L. Ni. 2014. Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans. Anaerobe 26:1-6. Abstract Available via PubMed

Mandalari, G., M.M.-L. Grundy, T. Grassby, M.L. Parker, K.L. Cross, S. Chessa, C. Gisignano, D. Barreca, E. Bellocco, G. Lagana, P.J. Butterworth, R.M. Faulks, P.J. Wilde, P.R. Ellis, K.W. Waldron. 2014. The effects of processing and mastication on almond lipid bioaccessibility using novel methods of in vitro digestion modelling and microstructural analysis. Br. J. Nutr. 112(9):1521-1529. Abstract Available via PubMed

Ukhanova, M., X. Wang, D.J. Baer, J.A. Novotny, M. Fredborg, V. Mai. 2014. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomized cross-over human feeding study. Br. J. Nutr. 111(2):2146-2152. Abstract Available via PubMed

Bornhorst, G. M., M. J. Roman, S. M. Rutherfurd, B. J. Burri, P. J. Moughan, R.P. Singh. 2013. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo. J. Food Sci. 78(11):H1807- H1813. Abstract Available via PubMed

Bornhorst, G.M., M.J. Roman, K.C. Dreschler, R.P. Singh. 2013. Physical property changes in raw and roasted almonds during gastric digestion In vivo and In vitro. Food Biophys. 9(1):39-48. Abstract Available via PubMed

Tan, S.-Y., R.D. Mattes. 2013. Appetitive, dietary and health effects of almonds consumed with meals or as snacks. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 67:1205-1214. Available Via Open Access

Foster, G.D., K.L. Shantz, S.S. Vander Veur, T.L. Oliver, M.R. Lent, A. Virus, P.O. Szapary, D. J. Rader, B.S. Zemel, A. Gilden-Tsai. 2012. A randomized trial of the effects of an almond enriched, hypocaloric diet in the treatment of obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 96(2):249-254. Available Via Open Access

Novotny, J.A., S. K. Gebauer, D.J. Baer. 2012. Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 96(2):296-301. Available Via Open Access

Mandalari, G., R.M. Faulks, C. Bisignano, K.W. Waldron, A. Narbad, M.S.J. Wickham. 2010. In vitro evaluation of the prebiotic properties of almond skins (Amygdalus communis L.). Fems Microbiol. Lett. 304:116-122. Available Via Open Access

Mandalari, G., A. Tomaino, G.T. Rich, R. Lo Curto, T. Arcoraci, M. Martorana, C. Bisignano, A. Saija, M.L. Parker, K.W. Waldron, M.S.J. Wickham. 2010. Polyphenol and nutrient release from skin of almonds during simulated human digestion. Food Chem. 122:1083-1088. Available Via Open Access

Cassady, B.A., J.H. Hollis, A.D. Fulford, R.V. Considine, R.D. Mattes. 2009. Mastication of almonds: effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:794-800. Available Via Open Access

Mandalari, G., G.T. Rich, R.M. Faulks, C. Bisignano, A. Narbad, M.S.J. Wickham. 2009. Almonds demonstrate prebiotic potential effects of almond lipid on colonic microbiota. Agro Food Ind. Hi Tec. 20(3):47-49. Abstract

Frecka, J.M., J.H. Hollis, R.D. Mattes. 2008. Effects of appetite, BMI, food form and flavor on mastication: almonds as a test food. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 62:1231-1238. Abstract Available Via PubMed

Mandalari, G., R.M. Faulks, G.T. Rich, V.L. Turcos, D.R. Picout, R.B.L. Curto, G. Bisignano, G. Dugo, K.W. Waldron, P.R. Ellis, M.S.J. Wickham. 2008. Release of protein, lipid, and Vitamin E from almond seeds during digestion. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(9):3409-3416. Abstract Available Via PubMed

Hollis, J., R. Mattes. 2007. Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humans. Br. J. Nutr. 98:651-656. Abstract Available Via PubMed

Burton-Freeman, B., P.A. Davis, B.O. Schneeman. 2004. Interaction of fat availability and sex on postprandial satiety and cholecystokinin after mixed-food meals. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80:1207-1214. Available Via Open Access

Ellis, P.R., C.W.C. Kendall, Y. Ren, C. Parker, J.F. Pacy, K.W. Waldron, D.J.A. Jenkins. 2004.

Role of cell walls in the bioaccessibility of lipids in almond seeds. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80:604-613. Available Via Open Access

Jaceldo-Siegl, K., J. Sabate, S. Rajaram, G.E. Fraser. 2004. Long-term almond supplementation without advice on food replacement induces favourable nutrient modifications to the habitual diets of free-living individuals. Br. J. Nutr. 92:533-540. Abstract Available Via PubMed

Wien, M.A., J.M. Sabate, D.N. Ikle, S.E. Cole, F.R. Kandeel. 2003. Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. Int. J. Obesity 27:1365-1372. Abstract Available Via PubMed

Fraser, G.E., H.W. Bennett, K.B. Jaceldo-Siegl, J. Sabaté. 2002. Effect on body weight of a free 76 kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 21(3):275-283. Abstract Available Via PubMed

Ren, Y., K.W. Waldron, J.F. Pacy, P.R. Ellis. 2001. Chemical and histochemical characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides in almond seeds in relation to lipid bioavailability. Royal Society Of Chemistry, UK. 446-452.


Mandalari, G., M. Vardakou, R. Faulks, C. Bisignano, M. Martorana, A. Smeriglio, D. Trombette. 2016. Food matrix effects of polyphenol bioaccessibility from almond skin during simulated human digestion. Nutrients 568; doi: 10.3390/nu8090568 Available Via Open Access

O'Neil, C.E., T.A. Nicklas, V.L. Fulgoni III. 2016. Almond consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010 Food And Nutirition Sciences 7:504-515. Available Via Open Access

Chen, C.Y. 2014. Health benefits of almond consumption among Chinese consumers. (in Chinese). Chin. J. Prev. Med. 48(3):231-233.

Yi, M., J. Fu, L. Zhou, H. Gao, C. Fan, J. Shao, B. Xu, Q. Wang, J. Li, G. Huang, K. Lapsley, J.B. Blumberg, C.-Y.O Chen. 2014. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 11:18. Available Via Open Access

Bisignano, C., A. Filocamo, E. La Camera, S. Zummo, M.T. Fera, G. Mandalari. 2013. Antibacterial activities of almond skins on cagA-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Bmc Microbiol. 13:103. Abstract Available via PubMed

Evans-Johnson, J.A., Garlick, J.A., Johnson, E.J., Wang, X.-D., Chen, C.-Y.O.. 2013. A pilot study of the photoprotective effect of almond phytochemicals in a 3D human skin equivalent. Jour. Phytochem. And Phytobiol. 126:17-25. Abstract Available via PubMed

Mandalari, G., T. Arcoraci, M. Martorana, C. Bisignano, L. Rizza, F.P. Bonina, D. Trombetta, A. Tomaino. 2013. Antioxidant and photoprotective effects of blanch water, a byproduct of the almond processing industry. Molecules 18:12426-12440. Available via Open Access

Mandalari, G., T. Genovese, C. Bisignano, E. Mazzon, M.S.J. Wickham, R. Di Paola, G. Bisignano, S. Cuzzocrea. 2011. Neuroprotective effects of almond skins in experimental spinal cord injury. Clin. Nutr. 30:221-233. Abstract Available via PubMed

Mandalari, G., C. Bisignano, T. Genovese, E. Mazzon, M.S.J. Wickham, I. Paterniti, S. Cuzzocrea. 2011. Natural almond skin reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease. Int. Immunopharmacol. 11(8):915-924.


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